Saturday, September 15, 2012

FET Senior Holistic Integrated Text


 FET - Senior Holistic Integrated Text: HLL

(Q56:63,64, 68, 69, 72-74 & Q67:23)
(Incorporating: Life Science; Physics; Tourism)

See you the seed that you sow in the ground? Is it you that cause it to Grow, or are We The Cause?
See you the water which you drink? Do you bring it down from the clouds (as rain) or Do We? Is it you who grow the tree which feeds the fire, or do We Grow it? We have made it a Remembrance/Memorial (of Our Creativity), an article of comfort for the denizens of deserts. 
Then Celebrate with Praises
The Name of you Lord, The Supreme.

Say: It is He Who has Created you and Made for you faculties of Hearing, Sight, Feelings(Emotions) and Understanding (Thought) : Little thanks do you give. 

HEARING - The external Pinna of the ear - catches and directs sound waves from the space around us into the Auditory Opening which allows sound waves into the Auditory passage (Auditory Meatus) towards the eardrum (tympanic membrane) causing it to vibrate. The vibrating eardrum  in turn vibrates the Auditory Ossicles (malleus(hammer), incus(anvil), stapes(stirrup)), which amplifies and strengthens  the transferred sound waves. The sound waves creates pressure is in the Inner Ear (which contain the Semi-circular Canals (Ampullae), the Cochlea (which has the sense receptors in its Corti for hearing) and the Auditory nerve (which sends the sounds to the brain fro interpretation)). The Oval Window, which connects with the stapes, leads to a central inner ear winding cavity(Vestibular Canal), which runs through the middle ear and connects at the end to a bigger round window, which again ends into the Eustacian tube (which leads to the mouth (pharynx)). This air from the mouth in the Eustacian tube, creates a pressure equalizing effect in the ear.  The Vestibular Canal contains perilymph liquid which feels the sound pressure and transfers it onto the endolymph which in turn pressurizes the hair cells in the Cochlea's Corti's to convert the vibrations into electrical impulses which travels along the Auditory Nerve to the Cerebrum of the Brain for sound understanding and interpretation.

SIGHT - Light Rays reflect from the object through the Curved (Convex) Conjunctiva, Sclera, Cornea, Aqueous Humour, Pupil, Lens (with suspensory ligaments that can straighten(flatten lens for distant vision) and relax (rounding the lens to have close/near vision), Vitreous Humour and onto the Retina. All these curved surfaces refracts (bends) the light rays so that an upside-down, miniaturized image can fall on the fovea (indented area) of the Retina (with photo/light receptors - cones for color and rods for black and white). The Pupil (opening of the eye to the world) is regulated by circular and radial muscles that within the Iris (which gives the eye colour). In bright light the Circular Muscles contract (making the opening(Pupil) smaller to reduce the light intensity and protect the eye), while the Radial Muscles relaxes ( allowing the Circular Muscles to do its work). In dim light, the Radial Muscles Contract, pulling the pupil (opening of the eye) open to allow more light into the eye thus making vision easier). The Circular Muscles relaxes to allow the Radial Muscles of the eye to do its work. The Ciliary Body, to which the suspensory ligaments are attached (which holds the lens), plays an important part in adjusting the shape of the lens for near (more round lens- suspensory ligaments relax) and far vision(more flat lens - suspensory ligaments contract) so that the light rays can be refracted onto the retina's fovea.

HEARTBEAT: Heartbeat has basically two cycles/ circuits 1) Pulmonary (deoxygenated) blood from the Right Ventricle(bottom heart chambers) pumped through the Pulmonary Artery to the two lungs for oxygenation. 2) Systemic Circuit ( Oxygenated Blood is pumped from the Left Ventricle into the Aorta to all body parts and cells. Cell Respiration takes place and Carbon Dioxide is released into the blood and deoxygenated  blood returns to the heart through the Superior and Inferior Vena Cave's into the Right Atrium (Atriums: top heart chambers). REMEMBER: The Two cycles happen simultaneously. When the contraction of the heart occurs (Systole) the blood is pumped to the lungs and all parts of the body simultaneously. When the heart relaxes (Diastole) blood flows from the into the Atriums (top heart chambers). The Left Side of the Heart (ventricle and atrium) handles Oxygenated blood cycles and the Right Side of the Heart (ventricle and atrium) handles Deoxygenated Blood cycles to and from the body parts. The A-V valves (atria-ventricular valves) prevent blood from flowing backwards into the atriums when the ventricles contact. There are tendons underneath the valves that attach it to the papillary heart muscles to prevent the valve from being forced upwards, causing it to close, when the heart pushes blood into the Pulmonary vein (to the lungs) and the Aorta (to all parts of the body). The semi-lunar valves at the base of the Aorta and Pulmonary Vein, prevents blood from flowing back into the atriums. The large, thicker muscles at the base of the heart allows for strong pulsation action to push the blood out of the heart.

EXCRETION: Functions of the Kidney: 1) Excrete Excess Water(Osmoregulation) 2)  Nitrogenous Waste (Urea and Uric Acid - Excretion) 3) Excess Mineral Salts (Na- and Cl -ions - Ionic Regulation) 4) Regulates pH level of the body (Acid-Base Balance). Each Kidney gets Oxygenated Blood from the Renal Arteries (which beaches from the Aorta) and it Deoxygenated Blood flows away from the Kidneys via the Renal Veins which joins into the Vena Cava. The above functions of the Kidneys happen  simultaneously, but must be understood in three stages; 1st Stage. Glomerular filtration(ultrafiltration) - under pressure blood (hydrostatic Pressure) in the Glomerulus ( because the afferent arteriole (very thin blood vessel - leading to the Malpighian Body is broader than the efferent (leading away from the Malpighian Body) arteriole  ) forces out Filtrate (water, glucose, amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids, urea, uric acid, cretonne and salts) through the capillary walls into the slit pores in the lining cells(podocytes) of cup-shaped Bowman's Capsule (thousands of them in the Cortex of the Kidney) and down into the Renal Tubule which runs into the Medulla of the Kidney forming the Loop of Henle and the 2nd Stage begins  - Tubular Absorbtion (this happens in the convoluted tubules(that lead from the Nephron (Malpighian Body + Renal Tube), supplied by a network of capillaries around it, that joins with the renal vein). As the Filtrate goes through the Proximal Convoluted tubules with its extra Mitochondria in its lining, active reabsorption of useful nutrients takes place through hairlike microvilli. As Sodium and Chlorine ions enter the medulla a low water content(potential) is created which makes water rush out of the convoluted tubules into the blood capillaries, leaving only Urine behind to be excreted through the Bladder.

THINKING: The Brain -  (Large Cerebrum; small Cerebellum, Mid-brain(Thalamus + Hypothalamus), Pons Varolli and Medulla Oblongata) - deals with voluntary and involuntary movement and functions of the body,  and the Spinal Cord (in the Spine - dealing mainly with involuntary reflexes) make up the Central Nerves System. All Nerves run to and from these large Nerve Central. The Brain has two halves - Left Hemisphere (control right hand side of the body) and the Right Hemisphere (controls the Left hand side of the Body): Cerebrum - operates all voluntary muscle movement, controls and interprets speech, vision, smell, taste , hearing and touch; Hypothalamus - reflex control hunger, thirst, body temperature, metabolism, sleep, water balance, blood pressure, emotional and behavioral patterns, and secretions of the pituitary gland. Cerebellum - controls co-ordination of voluntary muscle movement (walking, running etc), body balance, muscle-tone and body/movement equilibrium. Medula  Oblongata - controls reflex movement of heartbeat, breathing, dilation and constriction of bloodvessels(blood pressure, peristalsis through the intestines and swallowing

actin = protein in animal muscle; antigen = protein causes immune response; aseptic technique = sterilisation, air filtering, antiseptics(to prevent contamination); atherosclerosis = clogging of arteries; capsids = protein that covers/coats viruses; coenocytes = nuclei divide without the cytoplasm dividing; deamination = when an amino group (NH2) is removed from a molecule e.g. NH3 (Ammonia) released from amino acids; Dependency Ratio = pre-reproductive group (under 15yrs) and Post-reproduction group (pensioners); dermatophytes = fungus that cause skin, hair and nail infections; fecundity = number of babies a female can produce in her lifetime;  fontanel = gaps in the infants brain skull bones (covering skin keep it together = hardens as babies grow); homeostasis = constant internal chemical equilibrium/ balance in the body; hormone = secreted from glands and causes body responses; ligaments - elastic tissues join muscles; meninges (arachnoid, dura mater, pia mater) = membranes around the brain and spinal cord; lymph = clear fluid tissues in a network of vessels (lymphatic system) that captures valuable nutrients that land outside the blood vessels, taking it back into it; myosin = protein found in muscle; nephron = the Malpighian body and its tubules in the cortex of the kidney; neurotransmitters = carries a chemical message (impulse) across the synapse (space between the axon of one nerve cell and dendrite of another nerve cel) for brain thought and action; neuron = smallest cell of the nervous system; Genome = entirety of an organisms genetic information in the DNA; nucleocapsid = the genome and the protein coating of a virus; neutrophils = the most common type of white blood cell (leucocyte) formed in the bone marrow. It has a lobed nucleus and granular cytoplasm; osmoses = movement of water molecules through a differential (choosing) permeable membrane from a solution with a high concentration (lots) of water to an area of low concentration of water; Solute =  water solution of something (high solute concentration = little water and vice versa); pathogen = an orgaism that causes disease; phagocytosis = when a cell absorbs(takes in/ ingests) substances from outside its cell membrane into its cytoplasm. Phloem = tubes that transport manufactured foods to all parts of the plant body; Xylem = = tubes that transport water and mineral salts from the ground into the plants leaves.; resolution of a lens = minimum distance between two points that can be seen as two before it blends into one when closer; Systole = when the heart muscles s contract; diastole = when heart muscles relax; tendons = connect muscles to bones.Sustainable development = the balance between human development and nature conservation; Pollutants That Cause Global Warming = Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide(N2O); Sulphur Dioxide (SO2); Smog = fog and smoke mix (NO); Insecticides = chemical used to kill insects/pests; Reforestation = planting trees and shrubs in vacant areas; migration = organism moving habitat periodically/ eminently if climate changes; census = direct count of all people/individuals in the country; endangered = natural living species that face extinction in the wild; Red Data List = list of species threatened with extinction, that need special care for its conservation; Carrying Capacity = the maximum number of organisms/ animals that can occupy a certain land/area space; Density-dependent Parameters = current factors affecting the size of a population - food supply, living space, disease, pests, shelter, predators  (predation); Density-independent Parameters = not dependent on the size of the population - veld-fires, temperature, drought, floods, earth quakes, natural disasters; Population Equilibrium = when the death rate is equivalent to the birth rate and resources are adequate to sustain all, no population increase or population stability;

Environmental and Personal Dangers

Deforestation & Political/ Business Exploitation 
removes topsoil stability, which causes soil erosion (washing/ blowing away of fertile soil, leaving the soil without potential to grow plants, thus no feed for animals and loss of habitat (living space) for insects and small animals that stimulate soil health. With less plants,less water absorbed from the ground, less transpiration, less water vapour in the air, less cloud formation, less rain. With less water available, human and industries cannot function to their optimum. Natural life's activity and economic life activity will be severely restricted and will become threatened. At the end of Surah Mulk Allah (SWT) Asks mankind the Question what are we able to do if Allah (SWT) Keeps our water away? The removal of plants and vegetation also increases the Carbon Dioxide concentration in the air, because there are no plants to absorb it from the air to photosynthesize. This intern increases pollution,   increase in greenhouse gases, which traps the reflected sun's heat from the earth surface from escaping thus causing global warming; extinction of species occurred, loss of biodiversity, fragmentation(breaking) of habitat(animal homes), desertification (deserts developing); loss of indigenous cultures (in forests); loss of genetic variations in species, that are need for human survival; social conflict between invading land owners, racial conflict, loss of medicinal plants, loss of natural resources for survival. In South Africa Apartheid resulted in white 20% people owning 87% of the land and 80% of the people having to occupy 13% of the land, which resulted in overgrazing of their small farms which made their soil infertile, large urbanization for jobs, putting pressure on city resources (water, land space), squatting (informal settlements) occurred causing congestion, increase in crime, pollution (people making fires to heat up and make food)

Ecological Imbalances
When any one species is reduced or increased in an ecosystem, then it becomes imbalanced and an over population or extinction of another level of the food chain will occur. This has a direct negative effect on the general ecological balance of the area which will eventually affect humans.

Human Impacts on The Environment
Monocultures for mass production for exports reduce land use for locals and disturb the natural ecological balance of the country; Inappropriate dam constructions reducing the natural water flow for other people; removal of ground water; urbanization, increase use of fossil fueled cars, airplanes, jets, space explorations,

constriction/ tightening of blood vessels, creating increase in pressure in the blood, which can break/ rapture thin capillaries (smallest/ thinnest blood vessels). This is High Blood Pressure. This happens when people are stressed /worried /lack of exercise/ smoking/ rich fatty diets/ obesity.There develops deposits inside the blood vessel walls which restrict the even flow of blood causing incase pressure on the blood vessel walls. Obesity is a disease that is a result on uncontrolled eating habits which increases heart rate to pump blood pass all the fat to reach organs. This increases blood pressure. Low blood pressure and no-deposits on the inner wall of blood vessels allows for a greater amount of oxygen diffusion in the lungs and from the the blood vessels into the organs and cells. A lack of proper blood supply/ constriction in blood vessels also causes strokes.

Prevention Strategies for Survival
Laws were passed to prevent the use of pollutants, education of people how to use resources more efficiently; curb over consumption (use and abuse of food, clothes, transport means), plant roof-top gardens; avoid/ reduce food intake that causes cholesterol build-up, start conservation projects, re-cycle, re-use, reduce refuse. For air, land and water-born diseases people are encouraged not to pollute fresh water resources (rivers, dams), better sanitation (toilet facilities), boil water before drinking from natural water resources, eat healthily. Medically - ensure there is a good supply of antibiotics, equipment for intravenous replacement liquids (drips), vaccinations/ inoculations, quarantine/isolate infected patients, reduce/ re-leave poverty, set-up clinics and employ more hospitals staff, run awareness programs on all media forms, provide better housing, start environmental friendly, labour intensive (not machines) business in rural areas to reduce urbanization, decrease poverty and city pollution, develop effective transport systems that use less alternative energy.

Microscopic Needed Knowledge

Endocrine glands secrete hormones in small quantities into the bloodstream which transports it to the targeted organ where its effect is felt.

A reflex action is a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus (e.g. prick) from the spinal cord to the effector organ (the organ that must react to the stimulus). The pain receptors in the foot/hand receives the thorn prick, it converts it into a nerve impulse that is transmitted along the dendrites of the sensory neuron to the cell body in the ganglion, from where the axon entries the spinal cord. The impulse crosses the synapse and passes to the interneuron, from where it is transmitted along the axon of the motor neuron to the effector organ(the muscle) which contracts and cause the foot /hand to withdraw from the thorn.

Involuntary body responses include automatic body reactions (without thinking) such as blinking of eyes, yawning, sneezing, heartbeat, peristalses, coughing.

Stress causes the secretion of adrenalin. Adrenalin inhibits the action of the viscera of the stomach and intestines, it increases the heartbeat and speeds up blood circulation, blood pressure is raised and the liver changes glycogen into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream. The liver also releases stored red blog corpuscles to transport oxygen, which dilates the bronchi and increases the rate and depth of breathing, which increases the metabolic rate (the rate at which food is burnt to release energy into the cells and hence the body to respond to the stress more effectively.

Sweating causes a shortage of water in the blood (increase in osmotic concentration); osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus of the brain is stimulated; impulses are created that stimulates the pituitary gland to release ADH(Anti-Diuretic Hormone) causing the walls of the distal and collecting ducts to become more permeable to water; more water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the kidney into the blood to restore the blood's water concentration to normal. The urine that is now formed is more concentrated (less water in it) - person wee's less - reason why runners goes less to the toilet when they run for long distances than when they are just normally functioning.

Where Types of joints are: Ball and Socket(humerus and scapula; shoulders); Hinge Joint (between humorous and radius and ulna and between the phalanges); Gliding Joint(between  clavicle and acromion of the scapula and between the carpals and metacarpals; Condyloid Joint(between the radius and carpals and between metacarpals and phalanges; Saddle Joints(between the carpal bone and metacarpal thumb

Bones are made up of living cells called osteocytes. Osteocytes need nutrients and oxygen and the waste from its metabolic functions must be removed from them.Blood supply to the bone provide this transport system. Red Blood cells/ corpuscles and blood platelets are made in the Red Bone Marrow of the bone.

Lymph Nodes filter and remove foreign particles (dead cells, toxins/poisons) from the lymph, thus preventing it from going into the rest of the body. Lymphocytes produce antibodies to neutralize and destroy disease producing organisms. Lymph is moved through the body action pressure of the movement of the skeletal muscles, internal organs, inhalation, one way valves that ensure one-way direction flow and pressure of the lymph on the body tissue itself. Lymph does not clot because it does not have platelets. Lymph enters the body through the thoracic duct that opens into the Left  and Right Subclavian vein.

Atherosclerosis (Hardening of the arteries caused by fatty substance build-up(atheroma) in the arterial inner wall's lining. It starts early in life, often due to hereditary factors.

Aldosterone, a secretion which controls the salt concentration in the blood. It causes more salt to be released in the urine if there was too much salt in the body and less salt to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream in the Loop of Henle. It also lowers the potassium level in the blood

Glucagon Secretion is a hormone that activates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when the sugar level in the blood is low.

Drama, Life Orientation
(Q 6:165)t
It is God Who has made you God's deputies on Earth, raising you in ranks, some above other, in order to test you in the Gifts God gave you. Verily, your Guardian-Lord is swift in Retribution, yet is Truly Forgiving and Merciful 

People express themselves in various ways. Apart from normal conversation, letters, emails, writing articles and books, drama/ theatre and Poetry are also ways how people express themselves.  People express their wishes, plans, opinions, fears, delights, faithfulness, agreements and knowledge through the above different means/ways. 

Drama includes: Role play, Storytelling and mimicry, pantomime( folk tales sketching moral dilemma's), film, TV shows, stand-up comedy

Drama Elements: Literature (Dialogue Scripts), Characters(Actors/Players) ,Plot (storyline, story organization) technical (lighting, props, make-up, lighting, sound - all of it determined by the mood, time period and message of the play) , performance(expressions, speech, movement, gestures), Visuals (scenery, costumes, symbolism), Theme (central idea), 

Drama Types/Genre; Comedy, Tragedy, Opera, Creative Drama (educational plays), Ballet, Cabaret, Dance, Musicals

Drama Movements: Dramatic Theatre (illusionary character, dreamworld experience, solving  life's problems); Epic Theatre( includes the audience, audience challenged to solve problem in their real life outside theatre, audience must be alerted to social-political reality, the audience must be alienated from the players so that the audience remain critical of the situation presented on stage - VERFREMDUNGSEFFEKT - narrating part of the story and demonstrating the rest of the story); Absurd Theatre (distorts reality, presents the universe as hostile, pointlessness of the nature of the world, Futility of life, unavoidable death, highlight the grotesque, negative, sees man as in a state of amnesia(forgetfulness of reality), belief that man has an inability to communicate with each other, rooted in the experience of oppression, destruction - expresses the fear of the unknown, lack of human identity, loss of meaning in life - a kind of a fatalism and faithlessness expressed through drama. Stoic Theatre(The Sage - destructive emotions lead to errors of judgement, thus stoic theatre presents the moral intellectual perfection, not being affected to the destructive emotions, the virtuous soul counteracting the emptiness and negativity of absurd theatre, introducing the Will and intention that changes circumstances of life to the positive.  

Changes in S.A.Drama
During Apartheid there was a clear distinction between good and evil. Topics could then easily be presented through drama/theatre which would reflect the injustice, exploitation, inhumanity, suffering, protest, oppression, yearning for freedom/ democracy/ human dignity etc. The World's Boycott of Apartheid South Africa, caused tremendous S.A. isolation. With little exposure and a predominantly white control of theatre, White South Africa suffered in skills and production standards. Black theatre and oppressed theatre found political expression on stage and also a sense of more truer characterization of dramatic roles. Post-Apartheid blurred the divide and created a need for more introspective, transformatory, reduction in policy presence, freedom of expression and changes in demographics changed the landscape of South Africa, not one of crime - a common element that surfaces after years of isolation and oppression of people - its like letting everyone out of a cage. Though South Africa proved a miracle in that there were no real widespread racial roots or killings between blacks and whites, The peaceful transition of South Africa from an Apartheid State to a democratic state earned the admiration of the world. Dramatic topics had to turn to more ephemeral (soft /personal/ soul searching/ identity issues ) such as Love, Religion, family< Violence, gayism, drugs, divorce, religious tolerance etc). Crime also kept people indoors and most theatre talent turned to the TV and Film industry as home entertainment started flourishing. Youtube productions have also influenced theatre skills. Individual can now express themselves on the web and get feedback and become famous overnight. This challenges theatre produces in South Africa to create beyond expectation productions that will draw people out into the theaters again. stand-up comedy has become a theatre attraction and is developing a new mixed genre that reminisce, question and promote new ideas and caricature political news. There is though a certain expected and restricted procedural theme that traps much of the talent available in South africa. Due to the Group Areas Act many South Africans are still stuck in their specific communities and hence are not able to influence a wide range of audience that would easily move through unfamiliar areas. The Malls have become the new place of meeting, but theaters are yet not on the list of audience attention. Computer moving and downloads are far more exciting and varied - hence again drama needs a serious rethink of its strategy, content and processes. Black producers, writers and actors are gaining more exposure. The America's 'War on Terror', an attempt to control Arab resources, and the Arab Spring, the Crash of the Western Financial Markets and the increase in Arab financial investments through bank bailouts, and the establishment of Islamic banks for safer investments, have given Muslims a greater part in the film, media and theatre industries - because of renewed interest in Muslim Affairs. 

Some Dramatic icons/ terms to Remember
1. Historification = pastness of events
2. MDALI = Music, Drama, Arts and Literature Institute: established in 1972 promoting self-determination, self-realization, self-support in Theatre Arts.
3. Names in the recent Drama scene: Lesego, Xoli, Mondi, Reisonhofer, Oscar Petersen, Meyebu, Cloyre, Mark Lottering, Riaad Moosa, Nazli George, Freimond, Gopie
4. First Non-racial Theatre (Started by Yvonne Bryceland and Brian Astbury)- The Space Theatre staged 300 productions in Cape Town since 1971. It Became the People's Space under new management of Moyra Fine and Rob Amato, but it had to close due to financial pressures.
5. The Baxter Theatre of UCT draws quite a crowd of theatre goers in Rondebosch in Cape Town
6. The Johannesburg Market Theatre helped SA claim some international status
7. The Film Tsotsi claimed an Oscar award
8. Memorable SA Theatre Productions include: Zulu Macbeth, Phin (African Jazz Musical); Everyman (Township theme); Kanna Ek Ko Huistoe - by Adam Small; Asinimali ( Prison Life); Bopha( trauma of a Black Policeman); Poppie Norigena (Plight of the Domestic Worker); Woza Albert ( student uprise in 1967); Sarafina (Hit Musical)
9. Stable Theatre (Durban); Shah Theatre Academy ( Durban); Imitha Players (East London); Inkhwezi Players ( Grahamstown).

(English, Afrikaans, Arabic)

Read, in The Name of your Guardian-Lord, Who Created: Created man out of a clot of congealed blood. Read, for your Guardian-Lord is Most Generous, The One who taught the use of the pen, Taught man that which he knew not. (Q96:1-5)

 The Mind Deals with Thought and Language:

I have just written a short essay (6 Feb 2014, which took me 20 minutes), which integrates (in list order) 62 most descriptive English words used in comprehension and literary questions for the FET Phase and which often challenges students in spelling, understanding and literary use. It truly motivated my learners from Grade 6-12 to feel a shift towards becoming one of The Pleasant Ones The Title of my Essayand to aim to improve themselves and their literary skills. I have evidence of my student's comments on the essay's impact on them.

I would like to offer one Special Free Workshop on the creative skill, impact and use of this integrative essay for English Teachers from Grade 10-12 on any Wednesday afternoon from 2.30pm-4pm at the CTLI.

I listed the 62 words (and translated them into Afrikaans) from FET Question and Answer English Study guides - as they frequently appear in comprehensions and literary extracts and questions. I then sat down and attempted to write one essay which sequentially integrates them. This was the result. The bold words are in the list. 

"The Pleasant Ones" by M.F.Arnold

People have different characters. Pleasant people are fun to have around. They are lively and not difficult characters. They are easily loved. Cruel people are the total opposite. Pleasant people are often in colourfulsurroundings and often enjoy delicious foods. Pleasant people are very diligent in their work. They create comfortable environs for themselves. They do not moan and are not lazy. The world around them is peaceful andcomfortable. They do not stress about things. Their needs and requirements are few. They are the fun-loving people who create outstanding, precious and trilling opportunities for others. To be fashionable is not arequirement of their personality, but to be reliable is to them the most important trait of life.One feels worthy in their company. They are not addicted to anything. The are youthful in their thoughts and actions. Their work often leaves people speechless. Common things do not impress them. The are creative. They never feel unlucky. They do not procrastinate. They come to quick conclusions and always have great ideas.

Self-centred, oppressive people do not like them - because no-one can control pleasant, creative people. It is usual to feel safe in the company of pleasant individuals. People feel considered in their company, because they treat people with respect. When you visit them, they are eager to serve you anything they have - even if it is popcorn or just their simple lunch. People can even breakfast with them and their guests will not feel as if they are intruding on their privacy. Pleasant ones have the ability to accomplish anything. They are patient and their actions gradual, but consistent. They reason very well. They do not wait for "permission" to do things - they are proactive.They are never anxious about anything, because they have knowledge, confidence and are fearless. Some people are antagonistic towards them, because they are jealous of their achievements. They anticipatenegativity from others, so it never really bothers them.

The analogy of their life is like "a garden that is in fertile soil and when the rain comes it benefits greatly", because they are anointed with creative thoughts and actions. There are many anecdotes about them, because positive people make good subjects for moral stories.

Without pleasant people the world will deteriorate into a despondentdesolate place where people deprive each other of being happy. Some determined enemies of goodness are obnoxiousinconsiderate and oftenunconscious to the goodness in life. Their behaviour is often ungovernable from within themselves. They have no self-control. Obnoxious people are often immodestincompetent and unconcerned about other people's feelings. They do evil, unimpeded by their own inner moral guidance. People with confidence are their greatest challenge. Confident people can persevere, but obnoxious people are impatient. One's inner character istransparent and obvious from what one does and says. To be exquisite in character, behaviour and deeds need moral correctness, care, consideration for others and commitment to truth. 

Core Afrikaans Language Exam Prep: Senior
     POëSIE/ Poetry
1.         ‘n Gedig bestaan uit reëls.  Een reël word ‘n versreël of ‘n versgenoem.

2.         ‘n Klomp reëls saam wat ‘n eenheid vorm, word ‘n strofe genoem.

3.         Daar is verskillende soorte strofes:

·          ‘n strofe wat uit 2 versreëls bestaan, word ‘n koeplet genoem.
·          ‘n strofe wat uit 3 versreëls bestaan, word  ‘n tersine genoem.
·          ‘n strofe wat uit 4 versreëls bestaan, word ‘n kwatryn genoem.
·          ‘n strofe wat uit 6 reëls (of 2 tersines) bestaan, word ‘n sestet ofsekstet genoem.
·          ‘n strofe wat uit 8 reëls (of 2 kwatryne) bestaan, word ‘n oktaafgenoem.

4.         ‘n Sonnet bestaan uit 14 reëls              kwatryn 
                                                                        kwatryn         oktaaf
                                                                                                                        Italiaanse sonnet
                                                                        tersine             sestet
                                                                        kwatryn                                  Engelse sonnet

5.         Titel:
            Vertel die leser waaroor die gedig handel.

6.         Spreker:
            Die spreker is NIE die digter nie.
            Die spreker is die verteller in die gedig.
Soorte sprekers:  ‘n Ek-spreker of ‘n eerstepersoonspreker gebruik woorde soos        ek, my, ons. 
‘n Derdepersoonspreker gebruik woorde soos hy, sy, hulle.

7.         Eindrym:
            Woorde wat aan die einde van reëls met mekaar rym.

·          Paarrym:                                               aabbcc…..
·          Kruisrym:                                                abab
·          Omarmende rym:                               abba
·          Gebroke rym:                                       abcb (slegs versreël 2 en 4 rym)
·          Vrye rym:                                               abcde………..

            Funksie:  Dit bind die gedig tot ‘n eenheid.

8.         Binnerym / halfrym:
            ‘n Woord/ lettergrepe in die middel van die versreël rym met die eindwoord.

8.1       Alliterasie ( Alliteration- repetitive consonants):
Herhaling van dieselfde konsonant of klank aan die begin van ‘n lettergreep of woord.
            Bv.  “dat almal keer en koes”.
            Let wel:  Die herhalende letter / klank MOET onderstreep word!
Funksie:  dit bind die gedig tot ‘n eenheid / gee ook ritme in die gedig / plaas klem op iets.

8.2       Assonansie (Assonance - repetitive vowels):[ halfrym/klinkerrym / binnerym ]
            Herhaling van dieselfde klinker in woorde wat op mekaar volg.
            Bv. “totdat hy klink en blink”
            Let wel:  Die herhalende letter / klank MOET onderstreep word!

Funksie:  dit bind die gedig tot ‘n eenheid saam / gee ook ritme in die gedig / plaas           klem op iets.

9.         Enjambement:
            Die sin loop oor in die volgende reël sonder enige leestekens.

Funksie:  Dit maak die tempo van die gedig vinniger of dit dui op iets wat aanhou en aanhou.

10.       Beeldspraak

10.1     Vergelyking (Simile - compares .. "as / like..):
Wanneer twee sake wat ‘n ooreenkoms toon, met mekaar vergelyk word.
Voorbeeld:  “Sy bloos so rooi soos ‘n tamatie.”

10.2     Metafoor ( Metaphor - replacement in comparison .. "He is a lion":
Verkorte vergelyking.  In plaas daarvan om te vergelyk, sê ons die een is die ander ding, bv. “Haar gesig is ‘n rooi tamatie.”

10.3     Personifikasie ( Personification - "The moon smiled at me" ):
            Wanneer jy menslike eienskappe aan nie-menslike dinge gee.

            Voorbeeld:  Die wind huil om die hoek.  Die ketel gaan nou sing.
            Funksie:  om klem op iets te plaas.

11.       Refrein:
            ‘n Strofe wat herhaal word.
12.       Beletseltekens:
            (…) [ drie kolletjies ]
Funksie:  Dui op handeling wat voortgaan of  die leser moet self afleiding maak oor wat verder gebeur.

13.       Asterisk:
            Funksie:  Dui aan dat daar verandering (wending) gaan plaasvind.
14.       Dubbelpunt:
Dui ‘n aankondiging aan / of ‘n lys van goed word genoem of ‘n verduideliking   volg.

15.       Die woord “maar”:  Dui ‘n wending of verandering in die gedig aan.

16.       Retoriese vraag (Rhetorical Question - the answer is not expected, but obvious):      
Dit is ‘n vraag waarmee ‘n mens jou mening uitspreek en waarop jy nie ‘n antwoord verwag nie omdat dit vanselfsprekend is.
            Voorbeeld:  Kan ‘n moeder haar kind vergeet?

17.       Klanknabootsing (Onomatopoeia - "Clip-clop the horses troded"):
Die woord klink net soos die geluid wat dit beskryf bv.:  Die duif koer.

18.       Oksimoron (Oxymoron [ Opposites used in conjunction -"a living death"):
            Teenoorgesteldes / antitese onmiddellik langs mekaar in een uitdrukking, bv.
“knersend kalm”

19.       Asindeton:
Die voegwoord word uitgelaat, bv. :  Ek koop appels, lemoene, vye i.p.v. Ek koop appels, lemoene en vye.

20.       Neologisme (Neologism - newly made words " cell phone, skate-boarding):
‘n Nuwe woord wat uit twee [ of meer ] bestaande woorde geskep word.

21.       Apostroof:      Om iemand aan te spreek wat nie teenwoordig is nie.

22.       Denotasie (Denotation):     Die gewone, letterlike, werklike betekenis van ‘n woord.

23.       Konnotasie (Connotation):
Die verskuilde, bykomende betekenis van ‘n woord – figuurlike betekenis / absolute.

24.       Elisie:              Die weglating van ‘n klinker/klank ter wille van ritme.

25.       Metonimia (Metonymy - something compared with part of it " The hotel serves a good table":
Wanneer een saak in plaas van ‘n ander genoem word op grond van die verhouding wat tussen die twee sake bestaan, bv. Jy moet respek hê vir my grys hare.

26.       Polisintedon:
            Herhaling van die voegwoord / verbinding deur baie voegwoorde.

27.       Anafora / anafoor:
            Die herhaling van ‘n word aan die begin van versreël

More Figures of Speech...

28.   Litotes - negative and positive to express emphasis "He is no Einstein"
29.   Malapropism - unintentional incorrect word use - " The cannonballs ate the people "
30.   Synecdoche - part is used for the whole - "My heart bleeds with disappointment"
31.   Bathos - anti-climax " The luxury rooms were full of cockroaches"
32.   Spoonerism - mixed consonants " He hissed the mystery lesson'
33.   Euphemism - soft way of express something hard - "He passed away"
34.   Hyperbole - exaggerations "Rained cats and dogs"
35.   Innuendo - hint - " You are true to form (late everyday) "
36.   Irony -Opposites /different use of word - "The honest devil".
37.   Satire - making fun of a serious matter - "Apartheid happily confused the state"
38.   Pun - comic effect of word use - "Menopause stops men"
39.   Paradox - " cruel to be kind "
40    Imagery - pictures created by words
41.   Parody - pretending in a humourous manner
42.   Antithesis - contrasts " fire and ice"  
43.   Epigram - brief, pointed statement which contains humor or irony - If you think education is expensive, try  
44.   Tautology - words with the same meaning used after each other - "reverse backwards"
45.   Analogy - likeness in relationship - "teachers are shepherds"
46.   Verbosity - unnecessary wording - "vertical decline"
47.   Gerund - verb ending in -ing used as a noun - " Writing is an art
48.   Ambiguity - dual meaning which confuses
49.   Caricature - comic / cartoon effect
50.   Cliche' - Overused words - "eyes like diamonds"
51.   Trivialisation - make light of a serious matter
52.   Bias - one-sided

WOORDE                    -          VINCENT OLIPHANT

my woorde het nie die krag
om bose magte tot ‘n val te bring nie
my woorde kan bloot sing
my woorde is nie ‘n dak
om onder te skuil nie
my woorde is swak

my woorde kan nie keer
dat ons die kromme note haal nie
my woorde is kaal

glo tog
my woorde het nie die byt
van koeëls en grofgeskut nie
my woorde kan bloot bid
en pleit
en wens
medeburgers van die lewe
dat ons van grense sal vergeet
en bloot mens sal wees
en medemens

(Uit:  Die sagte vlees, 1998)

Die digter het nie tydens die apartheidsjare gedigte [ woorde ] gebruik teen die           
“struggle “ nie. Hy is soms hiervoor verkwalik.

Al sê die verteller dat hy nie teen apartheid gedig het nie, sê die gedig tog veel hieroor.


“ my “ = persoonlik / kan nie die bose / slegte laat val nie / besweer nie
“ my “ die verteller
Nie invloed nie / nie tot ‘n val bring nie.
Woorde sing – eenlettergrepige ww.
Sy woorde is eenvoudig
“ bloot “ = dit is al wat sy woorde kan doen.


Metafoor: kan nie skuilplek gee nie
Sy woorde kan nie optree nie
Nie veranderings meebring nie


Iets wat krom is = stukkend. Sy woorde kan dit nie regmaak nie
Kaal = letterlik = eenvoudige gedig         figuurlik = dit is ‘n onopgesmukte gedig


“ glo tog “ = pleit by die leser
Min invloed
Die protesdigters het oor die geweld van die “ struggle “ gedig – hy het nie/ hieroor veroordeel
Alleenplasing – beklemtoon
Wending:  Die vorige reëls het verduidelik wat sy woorde nie kan doen nie:
                        geen krag nie
                        geen beskerming [ dak ] nie
                        nie keer nie
nie regmaak nie
                 Nou sien ons wat sy woorde kan doen:
medeburgers = saam = gelyk
grense: denkbeeldige lyn   denotief:        versperrings, drade, mure
                                                konnotief        politieke en ideologiese skeiding.
‘ Vergeet ‘ = vrede = toekoms
En medemens – beklemtoon deur alleenplasing


Drie tersines en een lang strofe
Vrye rym: Vryheid na die struggle / vry om te kies
Geen hoofletters of leestekens nie
“ my “                         = 8x
“ my woorde “  = 8x

(Verwerk uit: Letterkundige-studie [ MML ] en Vlymskerp)

1.              Verduidelik in jou eie woorde wat met die eerste twee reëls
van strofe 3 bedoel word.
2.              Haal ‘n voorbeeld van alliterasie uit strofe 4 aan.
3.              Noem twee positiewe dinge wat die spreker se woorde kan doen.

STAD IN DIE MIS                                 D.J. OPPERMAN
 Met gespanne spier
loop ek deur die mis
want om my sluip ‘n dier
onder wit duisternis;
ek hoor hom knor en in oop  mote
waggel sy pilare-pote
en sy kantelende rug metaal;
op hoeke van die strate blink
sy oë bloedbelope,
en met sy hap sluit staal op staal.

(Uit:  Heilige beeste, 1945)


Die stadslewe kan ‘n mens verwoes. Die stad word met ‘n dier / monster vergelyk en is gevaarlik. Die hele gedig is dus ‘n metafoor.


Manlike eindrym.
Die rym is soms geforseerd.
Abab ccd ecd
Daar word meestal eenlettergrepige woorde gebruik om spanning te skep.


Dit is die enigste keer waar daar direk na “ stad “ verwys word.
Die mis maak alles half onduidelik. Kan nie sien nie. [ Lewe in stad is moeilik ]
1 – 4 = enjambement

Versreël 1:

Bang, spanning, een spier = rym
s-klank = dier sis

Versreël 2:

‘ mis ‘ =Rook, besoedeling

Versreël 3:
“ sluip “ = skelm, ongemaklik, bekruip

Versreël 4:

Sluit aan by die titel

Versreël 5:

Hoor geraas
Mote = tussen die geboue
“ knor “ = gevaarlik

Versreël 6 :

Oorweë [ fly overs ]

Versreël 7 :

Geboue se dakke
Inversie = rymdwang
Versreëls 8 + 9:

Bloedbelope = rooi – siek, drank, gevaar

Versreël 10:

botsing, hysbakke, motordeure
stad sluk jou in en vernietig jou.


Gevoel:         voel die dier se teenwoordigheid. [ 1 – 3 ]
Gehoor:         sis, knor,                                              [ 5,6 + 10 ]
Sig:                  sien hom                                            [ 6 – 10 ]





Spier   -           word               dier
Mis      -           word               duisternis
Mote  -           word               pote
Metaal-         word               staal

(Verwerk uit: Vlymskerp, Versjoernaal en Letterkundige-studiegids)


1.              Wat word bedoel met “gespanne” in reël 1?
2.              Waarna verwys “oop mote” in reël 5?
3.              Vul die ontbrekende woord in:  In hierdie gedig word die stad as ‘n … dier voorgestel.

SPORE OP DIE MAAN                       (KOOS DU PLESSIS)

1     Elke nuwe plan lê hopeloos verfrommel.,
want iets sê:  “Stomme drommel,
die ruimte lê vol rommel”
en ek begin verstaan:
Daar is geen nuwe oord om heen te gaan,
want, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

2     Want die stad blom elke nag,
strooi sy saad en skemerdag
breek staalspruite deur die aardkors.
waar jy gaan.
Rommelberge groei omheen
en daar’s swaelsuur in die reën –
en, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

3     Waarheen sou ek gaan?
Ontvlug is onbegonne;
selfs droom is onbesonne,
want die wêreld is oorwonne
en ek begin verstaan:
Daar is geen nuwe paaie om te baan:
want, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

4     Elke hektaar is verkoop,
elke opstal lê gesloop
en die wêreld wag verwese, in die waan
dat ‘n wonder sal gebeur
om sy rusperleërs te keer –
maar, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

5     Vlug na berg of woud…
Meen jy dat daar geeneen is;
dat jy eindelik alleen is?
Ag, verspieders loer op Venus
en ek begin verstaan:
Daar is geen nuwe oord om heen te gaan,
want, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

6     Elke woord is retoriek,
elke droom is bloot plastiek
en atoom’s die idioom van wie verstaan.
Iewers moet ‘n rusplek wees
vir die afgematte gees –
maar, kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan;
duisend donker spore op die maan.
Kyk, daar lê reeds spore op die maan.

(Uit:  Kinders van die wind en ander lirieke, 1981)
Alles verander. Die mens besoedel en pas nie die aarde en heelal op nie. Daar is nêrens meer ongerepte natuur nie.


20 Julie 1969
Apollo 11 [ elf ]
Niel Armstrong:” One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
1967: provinsie van die mensdom
Laat 21 kg toerusting agter
Geen wind: spore nog altyd sigbaar


Die refrein beklemtoon
Interne klankherhalings – vokale en konsonante – klankordening – hegte geheel
Slagrym:         aaa bbb       cc d b ee b   b fff bbb        …



English has the same science of language-use in Afrikaans    

Word Types: Antonyms (opposite meanings); Synonyms (two words meaning the same); Paronyms (same word, different spelling: lie - on bed; lie not the truth); homophones (sounds the same different spelling and meaning; bear (animal) bare (naked); Polyseme (same spelling different meaning; Bank (for money)  bank ( depend).

How to Analyse a Poem 

MisPlaced Art - by M.F.Arnold

They Celebrated
Colour Art that Fits.
They Lauded Political Entrenchments.
Lost Love, Loneliness,
Suffering and Death -
Topics for Literary Analysis.
Dark The Mood,
Heavy the Tone.

Light so Needed !
Happiness Seeds !
Faith to Hold !
Well Foretold -
But Less Uphold,
Where Bitterness Bold.

Unleash, Break Loose !
from Fettered World Views !
Make NEWS !

Analysis of "MisPlaced Art"

The title suggests that literary arts were misplaced - out of the context of its real possibilities. The poet refers to "White Supremacy" in the literary world, that only published (celebrated) arts - poems, drama, film and media - that give credibility to their notions/ preoccupations of/with race, colour, or creed - which serves to entrench the cultural divides/separations (Colour Arts that Fits/ Entrenchments), and place English as the supreme culture. The poet also bemoans (OR) the use of poetry to express loneliness, loss, love, suffering and death (lines 5 & 6)   for literary discourse/ discussion/review/ critique etc. There is a sense in the poem that darkness, suffering and disappointment should not be published at the expense of joy and happiness (Line 10 & 11). The poet seems to disregard that poetry, film, song, and general negative/ dark arts are often personal outlets for deep depression of individuals/ communities - a positive way of giving vent to(expressing) their frustrations, heartaches and depression - instead of murder, suicide, riot or destruction. The poet's appeal for happiness and light is a call for positivity in the Arts. The poet reminds the reader of the Prophets (Peace be upon them) who brought good news and hope to the believers (Well foretold). The poem has a motivational tone, because it encourages the reader to "break loose" from the chains of world obsessions (fettered). The poet calls for creative work - "Make News !" that will benefit all - instead of focusing all efforts on lamenting over past trauma's and hardships. The poet calls for individual strength, faith and hope (faith to hold - line 12). The general mood and expression of the poem is positive in that it gives advice and critically and constructively questions existing literary genre (types). It calls on the reader to think out-of-the-box (Make News).

(Economics, Tourism)

(Q3:130 - O you who believe, devour not interest (charging or receiving interest on money loaned/ in the bank), doubled and multiplied, but fear/be conscious of Allah so that you may prosper)


Core Topics in Economics (CAPS)
Grade 10
1. Economic Problem - scarcity of resources (Factors of production - land, capital, labour, entrepreneurship) and how it must be used effectively to satisfy unlimited wants
2. Circular Flow - consumers (customers/ public), producers(businesses/suppliers/ private sectors/ firms), State(Public Sector/ governments) and Foreign Sectors (Imports and Exports) creating a flow of money (salaries/wages/sales/taxes) and goods and services (economic goods - produced goods from raw materials that have an economic value/price.
3. Business Cycles - expansion/growth, peaks (44 months), contraction/recession, depression(11 months - 43 months), trough, recovery of businesses - growth,
4. Production and Income - production -sales - income - expenditure - production
5. Production Possibility Curve/ Frontier/ Boundary(PPF) - production possible mix/set/ratio of possibilities between two products with limited resources at the disposal of a business. e.g. If all the resources are used on Product A and none of Product B can be produced and vice versa. Opportunity Cost is the sacrifice of the number of products of A for producing product B and vice versa. an inwards shift of the curve means the firm is not producing at optimum possibility; a outward shift outside the possibility curve is an impossible ratio's of production
6. Public Sector(State) - state collect taxes in order to provide services such as energy, waste removal, water supply, pensions, unemployment insurance, grants, subsidies, provide education, health services, infrastructure (roads, bridges, airports, railways) setting and administer state-owned enterprises
7. Economic Growth - increasing the production levels of goods and services in a country, thus creating more jobs and increasing the standard of living of the citizens. This is measured by the real GDP (Gross Domestic Product which takes into consideration inflation) -this is market related progress
8. Economic Development - A country's policy changes and efforts to ensure the development of human capital (skills, education, health, safety, literacy), resource capital (environmental sustainability, infrastructure) entrepreneurship ( education, training, competitiveness)
9. Globalisation - international integration through internet , cell-phones, telecommunication, efficient, fast transport, thus causing an interdependence of economies of different countries with regard to cross-border labour, goods, service, skills, technologies, capital, markets, corporations and industries which create multi-national companies. This calls into creation the  World Trade Organisation (WTO) and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade which cut down on trade barriers to open up trade internationally
10. Money and Banking - see below..
11. Population and labour Force - considers the Civilian Labour Ratio (total number of civilians that are employed and unemployed), Participation Rate (the proportion of the population that are employed (economically active people), Formal labour(working for a registered business/firm with pension fund, unemployment fund, sick fund, labour relation agreements), informal labour (casual labour, few markets - no benefits, sick pay, pensions etc.)
12. Economic Redress - include BEE (Black Economic Empowerment Policies) and Gender Equity Economic policies that ensures that Black women get first preference to jobs and that black enterprises are given preference in financial support by government and private sector businesses. The aim is broad-based growth by focusing on inequalities and addressing factors that cause it. Encouraging through incentive black people to enter into businesses. Making sure that there is an equitable/balance of racial composition in businesses as well as the public sector, government preferential benefits to black owned business for receipt of support and tenders (getting state contracts)
13. Labour Relations - SA labour relation laws/ legislations are the most progressive in the world by having labour courts to settle disputes and ensure fairness in the workplace. The National Economic, Development & Labour Council (Nedlac) was enacted by parliament in 1994. All labour decisions must be taken inclusively and transparently.  The Act empowers workers in that it stands equity, participation in decision making, consensus, mediation.CCMA (Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration) this is a dispute privation and resolution body to settle industrial disputes fairly. Other bodies delated to labour relations include Advisory Council for Occupational Health and Safety; Commission for Employment Equity, Compensation Board, Employment Conditions Board, National Productivity Board, National Skills Authority, Unemployment Insurance Board. All these boards have been established by state to ensure labour fairness, transparency and equity with little or no chance for unfair labour practice by businesses who employ people.
14. Unemployment - the people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the total labour force, a national priority/ deep crisis, 24% of the total labour force is unemployed. Causes of unemployment: poor education, poverty, poor living conditions, corruption, influx of foreigners, strict labour laws cause firms to employ people as self-employed contractors(no pension, tax deductions, sick fund) then stop the "contract" when the job's done.
Grade 11
15. Factors of Production and Remuneration
Land (Rent), Entrepreneurship(profit), Labour (Wages and salaries), Capital (interest - not accepted in Islam as a remuneration - because the rich get richer and the poor poorer)
16. Economic Goods and Services
Any good and service that generates income and profit
17. Economic Systems
Capitalism (markets control economic activities - demand and supply determines price, production, distribution, profits - an economic model that crashed in 2008/2009 when governments had to bail out banks (paid the debts of the banks to save them from closer/ bankruptcy). Banks lost their investments due to home loans not being paid and banks having already borrowed money from investors and then could not pay it back . Communism (the state determines the economic activity in the country. The public owns nothing. No private ownership. All profits are shared by the people and everybody receives state coupons to live by. Socialism economic activity centres around producing goods that are useful to consumers. Money is not transferred but individuals the workers own the means of production and earn the produce they produce. Each earn what he/she/ they produce. States ensure that the people or society owns the means of production and benefits from it with no one person/ organisation/state that control the means of production. All the people must benefit from the country's riches.
18. South African Economic Structures
South African Economy is a Capilistic-socialistic-Welfare- Mix Economic System. It allows free markets, individual property rights, the State creates jobs and support the poor and disenfranchised. Its constitution values human rights and it promotes the RDP (Reconstruction and the Development Program that supports the previously disadvantaged masses of the Apartheid South Africa. BEE (Black Empowerment Enterprises statute/law encourages the state support of Black businesses, management as well as women within the reconstruction strategy. The greater percentage of South Africa's Exports are Metals, diamonds, coal, gold, chemicals, wine, fruits (only 0.88%), Maize (0.83%), sugar ( 0.46%).  SA has a high unemployment rate (25% mostly amongst Blacks - the largest population group)
19. Market Relationships
Buyers and sellers meet(physically/ cyberly) to satisfy needs and wants (for the customers) and to generate sales and profits for producers of good and services. The core aim of markets (offers for sale) is the retention  of customers (keeping customers from coming back for more). marketing, customer service, promotions and word-of -mouth are crucial components of market relationships.
20. Effects of Cost and Revenue on Price and Quantities
21. Price Elasticity
22. Economic Growth -
This is the increase amount of production of goods and services which result in the increase in jobs and general income of a country
23. Economic Development
Increase in self-esteem, self-worth, moral, freedom and general increase in living standards of a county's people due to increase in literacy, life expectancy, skills, freedom from oppression, healthcare, conservation and hence the per Capita income of every citizen. Economic development is a result of economic growth. True Economic development results in the improvement of all environments of the country and an increase in tourism to that country which adds even further development for the country due to increase in demand for goods and services which automatically increases jobs, personal income and general country progress.
24. Poverty
People who cannot afford basic human needs such as food , water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care, education and transport are regarded as absolutely poor. Relative poverty includes the absence of some of the aforementioned. Poverty is a result of industrial/ economic/ state inequalities that excludes or exploits some people from the fairness of economic activities - no proper wages, uprooting people from their homes through political/ economic dispossessions. Forced slavery of the past and present creates abject/ acute poverty that disempowers future families, Wars and natural disasters also create unsuspected poverty . Poverty can also be a result of personal bad choices - crime, drugs, alcohol dependencies, gambling and uncontrolled debt - living above one's means through debt related transactions - expenses exceed income and bank dependency has become the order of the day - then the person becomes unemployed and looses all his/her assets because he/she cannot pay his accounts anymore.  Illness, accidents and death of the bread winner have also contributed to people and families becoming poor. The reduction of poverty is a major concern of all governments, because it drains the economies of resources through crime, filth, disease, illnesses and death. All these factors of poverty deprives a country of skills and further potentials for development. Poverty deteriorates a country and makes it less attractive for tourism ( a great source of income for a country).  Government civil protection,  Education, skills development and the creation of jobs  are paramount/ important strategies for tackling the poverty problem.
25. South Africa's Importance in Africa's development
NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa's Development (old New African Initiative) sees South Africa as the strongest economy of Africa. NEPAD emphasises improved African leadership and governance in each African State. South Africa has spearheaded integrated manufacturing platform which makes South Africa the production platform for globally competitive supply chain. South Africa's ESKOM supplies 40 % of Africa's Electricity supply, a factor that makes SA a powerful partner in general African economic development.
26. Environmental Deterioration
Unchecked economic growth can result in the depletion of resources, increase in pollution, congestion, overpopulation, disease and death of citizens due to the strain unchecked economic growth can cause.
Grade 12
27. Foreign Exchange Markets
28. Protectionism and The Free Market
29. Perfect Markets
30. Imperfect Markets
31. Market Failures
32. Industrial Development Policies
33. Economic Concepts and Social Performance Indicators
34. Inflation
35. Tourism
36. Environmental Sustainability

Economics Exam Weightings

                                                                                                    Macroeconomics (Weighting 25%)
1. Economics: basic conceptspage11image14832
2. Basic economic problem
3. Circular flow
4. Quantitative elements
5. Economic systems
6. Business cycles
                                                                                                     Microeconomics (Weighting 25%)

7. Dynamics of markets
8. Public sector intervention and composition of the RSA economy

Economic pursuits (Weighting 25%
9. Economic growth and development
10. Money and banking
11. Population and labour force
12. Labour market
13. Redress since 1994

Contemporary economic issues (Weighting 25%)

14. Unemployment
15. Labour relations
16. Globalisation
17. Inflation
18. Tourism
19. Poverty
20. Other economic issues and quantitative elements of economics




Current South African Economic Issues Oct 2012:

Investors are not deterred by the mining strikes in South Africa, because foreign investors are increasing their investments in South Africa. They have invested in SA Retailers, especially those that target lower income communities Mr.Price 62% increase in investment , Shoprite Grocer increased 30% . Foreign investors are buying retail shares because the government supports good social grants which causes the recipients to buy at cheap stores where foreigners invest. The Minister of Finance Pravin Gordhan has commented though that the mining strikes could damage the economy. The first negative impact of the strikes is downgrading of SA's Sovereign Debt/CreditRating, due to uncertainty of SA future in view of the strikes. This means that when any SA banks or corporations will have to pay a higher interest rate if they want to borrow money from other countries for their infrastructural improvements. If the uncertainty continues foreign investors might withdraw their capital, leaving more people unemployed when business go bankrupt. 

Business Partners' CEO, Nazeem Martin, states that South Africa has brilliant ideas, but they are not turned into businesses. Academics are being incentivised (creating a comfort of academics to stay in theory research and not venture in starting businesses) in the wrong way: to continue to do research rather than develop that idea into a business ( Universities receive funding from Governement based on the number of Ph.D's obtained, number of patents registered, column of research papers published in respectable journals) Business Partners have R400m venture capital (money to help start businesses). It hopes to finance business ideas that has the potential to grow beyond South Africa. Previously venture capital was given to (financed)  lifestyle Businesses, that imply a maximum of 15-20 people, but it had no growth potential - only comfort for the founders. The national failure rate of business start-ups is between 70% - 80%. Business Partners has a 30% failure rate with a bad debt of only 3.5%. Entrepreneurial successes are hampered by red-tape, labour regulations and lack of serious commitment to the struggle of business ventures, hence SA produces the least successful entrepreneurs compared to comparable countries. 

Money and Banking
The South African Reserve Bank controls money and banking in South Africa. The State also established the Land and Agricultural Bank to see to the financial needs of farmers. The Bank Act of South Africa controls the establishment, activities and functions of all banks in South Africa.

FUNCTIONS of MONEY: It is a means of payment, Gives value to things/services (stores value); It is an accepted Means of Exchange; Money Creates Triggers for Exports, Government Stock Sales, Bank Loans for Production of Goods and Services.Banks borrow Savings of people in the bank to Businesses who ask for bank loans to start their businesses or to sustain it. The Bank charges the business a large interest on the loan for repayment and gives the people whose savings they used a small interest. This interest paying and receiving is Gharaam (Prohibited in Islam), because it often makes businesses depend on bank loans, causes enormous debts to the bank, to a point where they are not able to pay it back. The Bank then takes their assets, even their homes to pay their Debt if their business fails. When many people cannot pay the loans then the Bank will eventually not be able to pay back the Saving of the people who saved with the bank. This recently causes the Economic Crash of Banks in America, Britain and Europe which causes enormous unemployment and hardship to people all over the world. Muslims Countries who have not involved in interest related banking have survived during the recent Capitalistic economic crashes. Some American and English Banks have been bought over by Muslim Countries. This is why many banks today advertise Islamic Banking - The world has now seen the Wisdom of The Qur'anic Prohibition on Interest. Islamic Finance encourage business partnerships with equal opportunity for profit/ losses. This grows an economy without debt and fear of losses of homes and livelihood. A recent incident happened in South Africa where a family could not afford to pay the monthly installment on the home loan. The Bank took the house, evicted them, put their house on auction and sold it for R1000. The family is now without a home and still has to pay the bank R270000. The NewERA ( New Economic Rights Alliance - with 15000 members) are presently 2012 taking the banks to court for unfair client dealings.

FORMS of MONEY: Notes, coins, cheques, gold, cards. M3 Money Supply includes: All Coins and Bank Notes + Cheque Deposits + Short Term and Medium Term Deposits with Banks and Building Societies + Long Term Deposits with Building Societies and Banks.

Trade Unions
A Trade Union is a body of employees who unite by paying a subscription every month to representatives in their group to regulate/ control work relationships between them (the workers) and their employers (business owners). Trade Unions represent the interests of the workers, aiming at improvement of their working conditions, proper wage and salary payments (remuneration). At times unions organize strikes if negotiations between the union and the bosses comes to a dead end. Like recently (2012) mine workers want R12000 per month and Mine owners did not want to give it to them. They went on strike and 30+ strikers were shot dead. This is being investigated presently (Sept 2012). Other mine workers from other companies are now also striking for more pay. Generally Unions work and negotiate with bosses for better education and training facilities at work, better pensions, medical aid, overtime, etc. When workers are dismissed, unions are called to attempt to stop dismissals. Unions can only function if they are registered with the Industrial Council Registrar( This is a state appointed body to allow unions and bosses to meet to discuss disputes/problems or set and regulate new laws for service, work conditions and wage levels). Unions cannot provide financial assistance to striking workers. Strikes cannot happen unless all grievance were made known to the bosses and the bosses did not attend to it.

State Revenue
Includes:Taxes, Loans, Donations, Administrative Income (fines, levies, permits, interest, confiscated Assets), Commercial Income (sale of state goods, services), State Property Income (mining, forestry, Rentals).

Types of Taxation:
Direct Tax: Personal Income Tax, Tax on Undistributed Profits of Businesses, tax on foreign shareholders profits, direct consumption taxes, tax on license of guns. Indirect Tax: Custom Duty, Excise Duties (Sin Tax (Cigarettes and Wine)) Stamp Duty Tax, Entertainment Tax, VAT (Value Added Tax- tax on every stage of the production and sale)

Advantages of Direct Tax:
Admin costs, ensures that money is available for State Expenditure( education, police, courts, infrastructure, welfare, pensions, transport, housing, city maintenance, energy, army, emergency services etc.). It is a crime to refuse to pay tax (Tax Evasion), this ensures compliance of all citizens.

Advantages of Indirect Tax;
Consumers do not feel it, easy collection, tax evasion is difficult, rich pay more on luxury goods they buy, it is a regular state income.


Core Topics(CAPs)

3.1 Overview of topics
For detailed information, refer to the annual teaching plans.
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Grade 10
Grade 11
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Grade 12
Tourism sectors
Introduction to Tourism
  •   Types of tourists and
    tourist profiles
  •   The different modes
    of transport
  •   Accommodation es-
    tablishments: facilities and services offered by each type; the South African grading system
  •   Food and beverage establishments
  •   The attraction sector
  •   Structure of the South
    African tourism in- dustry
Transport services in South Africa
  •   Airports, airlines and airport
    operations; technology at air-
    ports to facilitate travel
  •   Tourism bus industry
  •   Tourism train industry
  •   Luxury cruise liner industry
  •   Car rental
    Job and career opportunities in the tourism sectors, sub-sectors and related services

  •   Requirements and inherent
    qualities needed to work in
    the tourism industry
  •   Entrepreneurial opportunities
  •   Professional image of staff in the tourism in- dustry
  •   Conditions of employ- ment
  •   Contract of employment
  •   Purpose and value of a
    code of conduct
Map work and tour planning
  •   Map terminology and symbols
  •   Different types of maps
  •   Location of South Africa’s borders,
    provinces, etc. on a colour map of South Africa
  •   Location of South Africa and the SADC countries, continents, oceans, island groups and tourism regions on a colour map of the world
  •   Distance indicators and distance tables
Tour itinerary
  •   Concepts: itinerary, logical
    tour planning, scheduled tours
  •   Factors to consider when
    planning an itinerary
  •   Different types of itineraries
  •   Writing an itinerary
  •   Location of world- famous icons on a col- our map of the world
  •   Tour plans and route planning
  •   Compiling a day-by-day itinerary
  •   Compiling a tour budget
  •   Health and safety
  •   Travel documentation
  •   World time zones
Tourism attractions
  •   Tourist attractions in the provinces of South Africa
  •   South African Na- tional Parks (SAN- Parks)
  •   South African fauna and flora as tourist at- tractions
Main tourist attractions in the SADC countries
  •   World-famous icons and attractions
  •   Factors contributing to the success of a tourist attraction
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Sustainable and responsible tourism
  •   Sustainable tourism concepts: sustainable practices in tourism businesses
  •   Three pillars of sus- tainable tourism
    (planet, people, profit)
  •   Three pillars of sustain- able tourism
  •   Responsible tourists
  •   Codes of conduct for
    tourist behaviour (so- cial, economic and envi- ronmental

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  •   Responsible tourism concepts and behav- iour towards the envi- ronment
  •   Good environmental practices
  •   Global warming and the tourism industry
  •   Demand for responsible tourism. Sources of in- formation
  •   Role players in respon- sible and sustainable tourism, such as pub- lic/private/ NGOs/community and tourist
  •   Global events of inter- national significance
  •   Unforeseen occurrences of international signifi- cance
  •   Forms of payment when travelling internation- ally
  •   Foreign market share statistics regarding in- bound international tourism

Domestic tourism
  •   Concepts
  •   Benefits for South
  •   Domestic tourism
  •   Payment methods and
    technology for pay- ment in South Africa
The Domestic Tourism Growth Strategy
  •   The seven domestic travel
    market segments according to the Domestic Tourism Growth Strategy
  •   Regional tourism. The SADC member countries
Domestic, regional and interna- tional tour- ism
  •   South African cultural uniqueness
  •   South African heritage bodies
Culture and heritage
  •   Concepts, elements
    and importance of
  •   Heritage sites
World Heritage Sites
  •   Concepts
  •   The role of UNESCO:
    logo and main function
  •   Types of World Heri- tage Sites: natural and
  •   A description of all the
    World Heritage Sites in South Africa
Culture and heritage tourism
Foreign exchange and its value to the South African economy
Conversion of currencies
  •   Foreign exchange
  •   The concepts strong and
    weak rand
  •   Currency conversions
  •   Differentiation between
    bank selling rate (BSR) and bank Buying rate (BBR)
  •   The effect of exchange rates on international tourism, affecting both inbound and outbound tourists, and how it in- fluences travel patterns of South Africans
  •   Exchange rates fluctua- tions
Foreign exchange
  •   Communication (verbal and written)
  •   Communication tech- nology (equipment)
  •   Service excellence:
    concepts, importance, advantages, conse- quences and recom- mendations
  •   Global distribution systems
  •   Customer care for foreign
  •   Customer complaints
  •   Managing quality service
  •   Methods to obtain cus- tomer feedback and measure customer satis- faction
  •   Reasons why service differs from one organi- sation to another
  •   Measuring customer satisfaction: analysis and intervention process
  •   Impact of the service
Communication and customer care

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delivered by an organi- sation on its business profitability
  •   Marketing of tourism products, services and sites
  •   Factors to consider during the marketing process
  •   Promotional/advertising tech- niques
  •   Marketing budget
Marketing South Africa as a tourism destination
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o Awareness of career opportunities
o Awareness of service excellence
o Awareness of South Africa as a tourist destination 

Grade 10
1. Sectors
2. types
4.Grading System
6.Food and Beverages
8.Structures in Tourism Industry
9. Payment methods
10. Map terminology
11. Locations
12. Distance Tables
13. Domestic Tourism
14. Tourist Attractions
15. Flora and Fauna
16. National Parks
17. Game Reserves
18. Sustainable Tourism
  • Environment (planet): Good environmental practices, such as resource management (energy and water), waste management (reduce, re-use, recy- cle), litter control, pollution control, environmentally friendly building, promotion of indigenous flora and control of alien invasive plants in grounds and gardens
  • Economy (profit): The role of business. The responsible attitude of a tour- ism business towards the people and environment it affects. Ways to prac- tise it: ownership, employment, procurement of local goods and services, etc
    Social (people): Considering the positive and negative effects of tourism on local communities, culture and heritage. Corporate social investment (CSI) in tourism, such as financial or non-financial support given by touris 
19. Responsible Tourism
20. Environmental Dangers
21. Marketing Tourism

  • Market research
    The process of market research: consider factors such as the potential customer, broader target market, competition, distribution of products, fi- nancing, marketing mix (the five “Ps” of marketing mix: product, promo- tion, price, place, people)Resources required for market research (budget for outsourcing to dedi- cated research specialists, cooperative research groups, individual re- search)Managing market research (set time frames, target dates, implementa- tion dates) 
22. Culture and Heritage. Heritage Sites

  • Cultural heritage sites, such as monuments, museums, historical buildings, graveyards, paleontological objects.  Natural heritage sites, such as mountains, waterfalls, caves.  The difference between local, provincial and national heritage sites
  • Examples of heritage sites in own province
  • The heritage plaque which identifies sites declared national heritage sites 
23. Communications

  • Written communication used in the tourism industry, including e-mail and
    email netiquette, websites, SMS messaging, social networks such as Face- book and Twitter for marketing purposes, faxes, memos, surveys, question- naires
  •   Verbal communication used in the tourism industry; business communica- tion etiquette in different situations in the tourism industry; face-to-face and telephonic; landlines and cellphones
  •   Tourism road and information signs as a way of communication in the tour- ism industry 
24. Service excellence
25. Transport services
26. International and National Airports
27. Train; Cruise Tours

Grade 11
28. Seven domestic tourism age segments

  • The seven segments: young and upcoming, independent young couples and
    families, striving families, well-off homely couples, home-based low- income couples, older families with basic needs, golden active couples (fo- cus on the profile of the segment and the type of holiday/travel they prefer) 
29. South African Cultural Diversity

  •   The tourism importance of the cultures in your province that attract tourists
    to South Africa, such as folklore, dress and cuisine of different cultural groups, practices such as gumboot dancing (mine culture), township kwaito art, sangomas, traditional medicine and traditional healing, small chiefdoms with traditional leaders, Ndebele art, Zulu dances in traditional attire, rick- shaws, San, art festivals
  •   How cultural uniqueness and diversity in South Africa can promote inbound and domestic tourism 
30. Heritage Bodies
31. Currencies
32. Regional Tourism
33. South African Developmental Community (SADC)

             Angola: Kissama National Park, Namib Desert
            Botswana: Okavango Delta, Chobe National Park, The Tsodilo Hills*
            Congo (DRC): Kahuzi-Biega National Park*, Virunga National Park*, Salonga National Park *
  •   Lesotho: Lesotho Highlands: uKlahamba-Drakensberg Park* and Maluti Mountains, Basotho pony trails, Katse Dam and Lesotho Highlands Water Pro- ject, Sani Pass
      Madagascar:Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve*, Royal Hills of Ambohimanga*  Mauritius: Port Louis, Grand Baie, Chamarel Falls and the coloured earths of Chamarel, Tamarin Bay
      Mozambique: Cahora Bassa Dam, Lake Niassa, Bazaruto Archipelago, Island of Mozambique*
      Namibia: Fish River Canyon, Etosha National Park, Namib and Kalahari De- serts, Skeleton Coast
      Malawi: Lake Malawi, Liwonde National Park 
      Seychelles: Beaches and leisure activities on the islands
      Swaziland: Hlane Royal National Park, Royal Swazi Sun Hotel, Mkhaya Game
      Tanzania: Mount Kilimanjaro*, Serengeti National Park, Stone Town of Zan-zibar*, Ngorongoro Conservation Area* 
      Zambia: Victoria Falls and Zambezi River, Livingstone, Lake Kariba, Kafue National Park  Zimbabwe: Victoria Falls and Zambezi River, Hwange National Park, Lake Kariba, The Great Zimbabwe Ruins*, Matopo Hills*, Mana Pools National Park*  
34. Tour itinerary
35. African States
36. Advertising and Promotions DTGS(Domestic Tourism Growth Strategy)

  •   Concept: growth strategy
  •   Objectives for promoting domestic tourism: sustainable tourism sector
    growth and development, tourism sector transformation, people empower-
    ment and job creation
  •   Ways to meet objectives such as increasing expenditure (more trips, length
    of stay, average trip expenditure), reducing seasonality (year- round travel, more trips outside of school holidays), improving the geographic spread of tourism (more trips to less popular provinces), increasing volumes (get more South Africans to travel), utilising events to encourage year-round travel, improving safety and reducing crime 

    Different types of promotional/advertising techniques used in the tourism industry:
    •   Above-the-line promotional techniques: conventional media tools such as rent-
      ing space on television, in newspapers, and magazines, on posters and on radio. Printed material such as brochures, flyers, pamphlets, posters, bill boards, me- ander maps. Electronic advertising such as video walls, audio-visual presenta- tions, digital displays, cellphone advertising, web-based advertising
    •   Below-the-line promotional techniques: personal selling, sales promotions, in- store discounts, promotional sponsorship, exhibitions, shows and expos
      Match the type of promotion/advertising to the potential customer. 

37. Global Distribution Systems
38. Central Reservation Systems
39. Customer Care
  • The six steps for dealing with verbal customer complaints:
o Listen carefully to what the customer has to say, and let them fin-
o Ask questions in a caring and concerned manner,
o Apologise without blaming.
o Solve the problem immediately.
o Offer the customer something such as an upgrade, a free product, extra
discounts, full refunds.
o Thank the customer for informing you about the problem.

40. Quality Service Management
41. Jobs and Careers in Tourism

Transport, hospitality (accommodation and food), tourism attractions (gam-
ing and lotteries, leisure, conservation, sport and recreation), events and conferences, tourism services, travel trade sectors 
42. Entrepreneurial Opportunities

Grade 12.
43. Political Situations and it impact on tourism
44. Tour Plans and Route Planning
45.Tour Budget
46. Health and Safety

  •   Concepts: World Health Organisation (WHO), health certificates, travel clinics, compulsory and recommended vaccinations (examples not required)
  •   Precautions to take when travelling to high-risk destinations (malaria, bilharzia, cholera)
  •   Vaccinations required for entering/leaving areas of high risk, such as yellow fever, hepatitis
  •   TB and HIV/Aids risks for inbound tourists
  •   Recommended health precautions for tourists visiting health risk areas, such as
    bottled water, sun block

  •   Reasons why the safety of tourists is important
  •   General safety precautions for tourists: in car, in public areas / street, in hotel
    room, at the airport, after dark 
47. Travel Documents
48. World Time Zones
49. Famous World Icons
50. World Tourist Attractions
  1. Name the country, city/town/area, give a reason why is it an icon, give a brief description of the icon, show a picture of the icon and its location on a world map.
  2. Australia: Sydney Opera House*, Ayers Rock/Uluru-Kata Tjuta Na
    tional Park*
      Brazil:The Statue of Christ the Redeemer or Corcovado (Rio de Ja neiro)
      Canada:Niagara Falls
      Italy:*Colosseum (Rome), Leaning Tower of Pisa (Piazza del Duomo)*, Venice*, Vatican City

  •   Egypt:*The great pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx 
  •   Germany:Berlin Wall, Black Forest
  •   China:The Great Wall of China*
  •   Israel:The Dome of the Rock, the Wailing Wall
  •   Greece: The Parthenon (Athens)
  •   India:The Taj Mahal* (Agra)
  •   Turkey:Blue Mosque (Istanbul)

  •   France:The Eiffel Tower,the French Riviera
  •   Japan:Mount Fuji
  •   Mexico :Chichen Itza (Yucatan)*
  •   Jordan:Petra*
  •   Nepal:Mount Everest
           Saudi Arabia: Mecca
  •   Switzerland: The Swiss Alps (Jungfrau-Aletsch)*
  •   Netherlands: Windmills
  •   Peru: Machu Picchu* (Cuzcu)
  •   Poland: Auschwitz*


  •   Portugal:The Algarve
  •   Spain:Alcázar of Segovia
  •   Thailand:Floating markets
  •   Russia:The Kremlin*, The Red Square* (Moscow)
  •   United Kingdom: *Big Ben (Palace of Westminster*), Buckingham Palace, Tower of London*, London Bridge
  •   United States of America: The Statue of Liberty* (New York), The Grand Canyon* (Arizona)

51. Factors Contributing to Successful Tourist Attractions
  •   Excellent marketing of tourism products locally and/or internationally, sustain- able and responsible management plans, efficiency and ethical behaviour of staff and management, positive experience of visitors, safety and crime preven- tion, general appearance and upkeep of the attraction, considering the needs of people with disabilities, universal access
  •   Characteristics of a successful tourist attraction: actual number of visitors ex- ceeds the target number of visitors, repeat visits; income generated exceeds target figures; positive impact on local community and environment 
52. Foreign Market Share
53. Customer Feedback
54. Professional Image
55. Conditions of Employment
56. Code of Conduct

Current Tourism Information (21October 2012; Sunday Times)
SA shows Tourism boom up to June 2012 R35 billion (4.5 million tourists)
SA Favoured Destination for British, American, China, Nigeria, Angola, Democratic Republic  Republic of Congo
Main interest/ drawcards in SA Tourism; shopping ( V&A Waterfront  received 950 000 visitors last year), nightlife, urban cosmopolitan lifestyle vibe, scenic beauty, outdoor adventure, Cape Point, Winelands, Sandton City (370 000 visitors), flea markets in Gauteng, Durban's Beach Front, tours to Soweto, Garden Route,
SA is currently attracting trade links of an increase of 21,1% with India and 68,4% with Brazil
Arrivals into South Africa in 2012; Chinese 60 272 (straight SA Airways Flight from Johannesburg to Beijing); Germany 118 776; USA 155 522
Average Spening of a Tourist in SA R8 600; Angola and Nigeria spent on average R20000 on one trip.
Locals  contributed the largest % of Tourism around SA 76% of total Tourism in SA
Local Tourism: 22% tourists went to Limpopo; 19% to Gauteng; 18% to KwaZulu Natal.
European Tourism increased by16.3% from Australia, 16,2% from Italy, 13,7% from France.

Maths; Physics
Zakaah (Alms - 2.5% of one year's unused savings) is only for the poor and needy, and the worker who administer it (Zakaah), and those whose hearts have been reconciled(who became Muslim and do not have much to survive) and those on bondage (slaves /victims of oppression/ prisoners of war etc. ) and those in debt (cannot pay normal debt - not debt from unlawful means) and (those) who work in the cause of Allah (SWT) -building schools, mosques, developing the Muslim community etc), and for the wayfarer ( refugees who flee their countries because of oppression/war etc., as an ordinance of Allah (SWT). And Allah (SWT) is Omniscient, and Wise.

FET Main Maths Topics

1. Functions (Gr 10:  linear, quadratic polynomials, graph shifts Gr 11; + exponential, rational, trigonometrical functions, average gradient two points Gr 12: +cubic polynomials, logarithmic functions, inverse functions, domain restricted functions)
2. Number Patterns, Sequences, Series( Gr 10: linear, constant difference, Gr 11:constant second difference, quadratic Gr 12: problem solving number patterns- arithmetic & geometric sequence)
3. Finance, Growth and Decay ( Gr.10:Simple and compound growth-interest higher purchase, inflation, population etc; fluctuating foreign exchange rates.Gr.11: + straight line depreciation on reducing balance link with functions, effective nominal interest rate Gr.12: + solving annuity and bond repayments. different loan options) 
4. Algebra (Gr.10 real numbers can be irrational/ rational, exponential laws, the surd's position, multiply binomials by trinomials, facto rising difference and sum of two squares, grouping pairs, simplify, add and subtract algebraic fractions with cubes denominators, linear equations, quadratic equations, changing the subject of the formula, exponential equations, linear inequalities, systems of linear equations, word problems. Gr 11: + non-real number line, squaring non-real numbers to get a negative real number, nature of roots, rational exponents, add, subtract , multiply, divide surds, solve quadratic equations, quadratic inequalities in one variable and interpret graphically, two unknowns - one linear, one quadratic- algebraically and graphically Gr.12: + logarithms and real life problems, remainder theorem Factor theorem for polynomials to the 3rd degree, factories 3rd degree polynomials)
5. Differential Calculus(only Gr12 limits, first principles, equations of tangents to graphs, cubic function graphs, optimization and rates of exchange, calculus of motion)
6. Probability (Gr 10: compare relative frequency of experimental outcome with theoretical probability to the outcome, venn diagrams to aid probability, mutual exclusive events and complementary events, identity for any two events A and B; 
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B). Gr 11: dependent and independent events, venn diagrams or contingency tables and tree diagrams Gr.12: generalization of the fundamental counting principle, probability problems using the fundamental counting principle. 
7. Euclidean Geometry and Measurement (Gr 10: special quads, mid points of sides in a triangle, surfaces and volumes of sphere, cones, pyramids. Gr.11. prove circle theorems concerning tangents and radii, circle geometry, prove riders. Gr. 12: conditions for polygons to be similar, Prove mid point in triangle sides and parallels, equilateral and side proportional triangles are similar, pythagorus, riders)
8. Analytical Geometry (Gr.10: formula's for distance, gradient, conditions for parallel and perpendicular lines, mid-point of line segment. Gr11.+ co-ordinates system of a line through two points, equation of a line through one point, inclination of a line. Gr. 12. Derive two dimensional cartesian co-ordinates and apply the equation of a circle, tangent to a given point.) 
9. Trigonometry (Gr.10: definitions, ratios, in sin, cos, tan, extended definitions to 360degrees, derive special trig angles, define the reciprocals of trigonometric ratio, solve problems in two dimensions. Gr 11. derive and use trig identities, reduction formulae, general and specific solutions to trig equations, establish sine cos area rules. Gr 12 + Proof and use of compound angles and double angle identities, solve problems in 3-dimensions)
10. Statistics (Gr10. univariate numerical date in order to determine central tendency, 5-numer summary, box-whisker diagram, measure & dispersion.Gr11: = ogives, calculate variance and standard deviation of set data manually for small sets of data and using the calculator for large data sets, represent graphically, skewed data in box-whisker diagrams, frequency polygons, identity outlier. Gr.12. bivariate numerical data, scatter graphs, simple investigations whet ether linear, quadratic, exponential functions would fit the data, calculator skills for linear regression to fit bivariate numerical data and correlation co-effient of a set of bivariate numerical data, make deductions. ) 

Dividing data units that were re-arranged in sequence, into 4 quarters. Quartile 1 (Q1) is at the 25% (1/4) way mark. Quartile 2 (1/2) is at the Middle of the Data sequences, the actual Median, and Quartile 3 (Q3) is at the 75%(3/4) mark of the sequenced data units. If you are asked to find the upper Quartile you find the the middle(median) between the half and the end. If they ask you for the lower Quartile, you simply find middle(median) of the lower half. If there no exact middle unit, take the middle two and divide by two to get the median ( middle unit number)

Inter-Quartiles Range-(IQR) = Median of the Upper Quartile (from 1/2 to End) MINUS the Median of the Lower Quartile (o to 1/2 way). 

Semi-inter-Quartile = Upper Quartile MINUS the Lower Quartile (which is the IQR) DIVIDE by 2.

Always arrange the data units in sequence (they cannot give you too any units in a test)

If they ask you for "Determine the number of values below the 30th percentile", you simply divide 30 by 100 and multiply it with the number of units in your data. The answer you get is the number of data units below the 30th percentile. You then established that only 3 out of 10   (33%) of the units are below 30% and that means that 6 out of 10 are above 30%. If these 10 units in the data was the percentages of a maths class of 10 students then you can say that only 30& of the class failed and 60% scored above 30%

Mid-year Maths Exams
Gr10:Algebraic expressions, Exponents, Number patterns, Equations and inequalities, Trigonometry, Functions, Trig functions, Euclidean Geometry.
Gr11: Exponents, surds, Equations and inequalities, Number patterns, analytical Geometry, Functions, Trig(reduction, formulae, graphs, equations.
Gr12: Patterns,Sequences, series, Functions and Inverse Functions, Exponential and logarithmic functions, Finance, Growth and decay, Trig Compound angles, Trig 2D & 3D, Polynomial functions, Differential calculus analytical geometry

(Design, Art)
To each is a goal to which Allah (SWT) turns him/her to, then strive together (as in a race - not worldly competition) towards all that is good. Wherever you are, Allah (SWT) will bring you together, for Allah (SWT) has power over all things. Q 2:148


What is Design?

Design is a creative problem-solving process and includes the study of both design practice and design theory. The design process involves problem identification, planning, research, innovation, conceptualisation, experimentation and critical reflection.
This process typically results in new environments, systems, services and products, which may be unique or intended for mass production, or which may be constructed by hand or produced by mechanical and/or electronic means.
Design adds value to life by creating products that have a purpose, that are functional and that have aesthetic value. Design products can shape the social, cultural and physical environment to the benefit of the nation.
Most importantly, Design equips learners with crucial life skills such as visual literacy, critical and creative thinking, self-discipline, and leadership. It also encourages learners to be resourceful and entrepreneurial, to strategise and to be team players. 

Specific aims
In Grades 10 to 12, Design learners will
  • 1. develop their ability to analyse, invent, innovate and construct visual language 
  • 2  develop knowledge, technical abilities and skills in the conceptualisation, production and context of design 
  • 3.  explore and manipulate materials, processes and techniques efficiently, economically, safely and responsibly
  • 4.  appraise their own work and that of others critically
  • 5. understand that design may be a tool for social change by improving the quality of life
    and providing solutions in response to individual and community need

  • 6.  understand the social and historical contribution of design with regard to economic growth, entrepreneurship and sustainability
  • 7.develop an awareness of career opportunities in the design industry
  • 8.  manage their own working process and time effectively
  • 9.  develop presentation and communication skills in order to convey design concepts accurately
  • 10. acknowledge and reflect on the design, art and craft of local and international and past and present cultures 

Overview of topics and weighting
Design uses the following three (3) topics that are repeated every term in every grade:
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Time weighting: Four (4) hours per week
Design process and factors influencing the process
Design in a business context
15 hours per practical task per term

Design in a business context to be presented as independent research during the process
Design production, time management and safe practice
15 hours per practical task per term

Design theory:
  •   history of design
  •   design literacy
  •   design in a socio-cultural/ environmental and sustainable context
Minimum of one (1) hour per week throughout the year Each component can be taught in a module

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Creativity/Originality/interpretation in terms of the concept and solutions relevant to the brief
Evidence of design involvement: the appropriate use of design elements and principles
Completion of work/time management/evidence of full utilisation of available time
Professional presentation and functionality of the design solution
COMBINED TOTAL: Sections A and B

  1. The written brief should inform learners of
    •   details of the project regarding the scope and focus: key aims, concepts and skills
    •   sources, resources and approaches required for the design process
    •   expectations regarding the depth and breadth of the research, for example, details of
      the type of research and the minimum amount of pages in the workbook 22
  •   details of the end product and its function
  •   suggested approaches and methods in the design production
  •   any restrictions in relation to materials, techniques, size and function
  •   mini-deadlines or checkpoints along the way; and final submission deadlines
  •   assessment guidelines: procedures and criteria. 

Teaching guidelines
any aspects of design can be covered during Grades 10 to 12, but it is impossible to include everything. The curriculum is flexible to accommodate differences between schools, teachers’ specialist skills and learners, and to encourage creativity and diversity. However, a specialised field of focus from Grade 11 is recommended to ensure progression and development (see addendum A). There is a choice of one of the following categories as a particular path of discovery:
  1. Visual Communication/Information Design and/or Digital Design
  2. Surface Design and Two-dimensional Craft Design
  3. Product Design and Three-dimensional Craft Design
  4. Environmental Design
The content, concepts and skills for the subject Design are contained in three topics. All three topics, namely
The design process, design production and design theory, are repeated every term. These topics are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated and incorporate specific design practical and theoretical skills, knowledge and values that should be developed in increasing complexity from Grade 10 to Grade 12.
Topic 1 (Process) and topic 2 (Production) are the creative or practical aspects of the subject and are closely interrelated. The design process (planning) and production (making) involve in essence, how to design.
Topic 3 (Design Theory) is the theoretical aspect of the subject and includes a review of design literacy, the history of design, design in a socio cultural/environmental and sustainable context, and design in a business context (to be integrated with topic 1, Process).
The theory does not always have to relate to the practical and it can be dealy with in isolation. However, it can be useful to engineer the practical specifically to tie in with the theory because design theory is linked to design process and production. It will enable learners to develop visual, design and cultural literacy, contextualise design products, and interpret and use non-verbal (visual or symbolic) language as a means of communicating new ideas, concepts and understandings. For example, give learners a stylisation project for topics 1 and 2 in which they have to design an Art Deco-inspired package while studying Art Deco for topic 3.
The history of design content cannot be seen in isolation or in the context of one country only. It is vital to emphasise the importance of the design history globally in order to equip learners with sufficient knowledge to create innovative designs. This knowledge will empower the learner to improve on existing design concepts. The learner needs to understand design in the past in order to be successful in future design.
The teaching of practical design content, concepts and skills is cyclical rather than linear. These elements are taught throughout the year, every year, with increasing complexity. Teachers should have high expectations of learners’ ability to achieve and should plan their classes to provide for the multiple levels of ability present in every class. Further guidelines for teaching these topics follow below and includes a checklist for ongoing assessment. 

  1. Practical work
    Drawing is a compulsory part of all practical options in Design.
    A specialised field of focus from Grade 11 is recommended to ensure progression and development through the different grades.
    Possible approaches for progression in the practical
    GRADE 10
    •   Introduction to various design fields
    •   Introduction to basic skills, techniques, materials and themes
    •   Step-by-step projects and process work
    •   Investigation of different approaches to expand learners’ vocabulary
      GRADE 11
    •   Progressively increasing complex practical tasks
    •   More specialised projects
    •   More individual experimentation to accommodate individual solutions
    •   Should show the learner’s ability to sustain work from an initial starting point to
      realisation and should include evidence of their ability to research and develop ideas

Open-ended briefs, where learners choose the materials, tools, techniques, themes and processes best suited to their individual interests
Note: The practical assessment task (PAT) for a term need not only be one final work, but could be a series of related works. 

hree key topics are repeated with increasing complexity every term in each grade. The reason is that teaching of practical design skills is cyclical rather than linear, meaning that learners need to be exposed to the same content and concepts, and practise the same skills repeatedly to develop their subject knowledge and skills. It takes regular practice over time to develop deep understanding of and skill in design.
However, learners must have a scaffolded learning experience. The phase must be planned within a learning trajectory (journey with a clear route) in which the content has been carefully sequenced (ordered) and paced (sufficient time given for true understanding).
Teachers need to ensure that each term’s task demands greater complexity and skill and that learners are challenged to go beyond their comfort zone. While planning, it will be necessary to draw from the topics of previous terms and phases to consolidate what has been learnt before and to ensure ongoing progression within the phase.
The nature of progression in Design is found in
  • 1. increasing development and exploration of traditional drawing skills in conjunction with the design process
  • 2.  acquisition of new concepts and skills
  • 3.  increasing understanding of design vocabulary and terminology
  • 4.  increasing ability to listen well, respond to instructions and work with others
  • 5.  increasing awareness of investigation, experimentation and reflective practice
  • 6.  increasing awareness of detail and level of quality
  • 7. increasing design literacy and ability to recognise and interpret the complexity of designs
  • 8.  increasing awareness and understanding of the designer’s responsibilities towards social issues, environmental issues and sustainable design
  • 9.  increasing awareness and understanding of marketing, markets and trends
  • 10.  increasing confidence, self-discipline, focus and creativity
  • 11.  moving from dependence on the teacher to independence of thought and action
  • 12.  developing skills in understanding of materials and two- and three-dimensional construction
  • 13.  increasing awareness of the value design can add to life

Grade 10
Content/concepts/skills Design literacy
  •   Introduction to visual communication as a basic human need: symbolic language
  • Introduction to Visual Communication/Information and Digital Design: (e.g., signs, symbols, typography, logos, advertising and branding)
    Study ONE contemporary South African designer/design group that is concerned with social and/or environmental issues (either consciously or subconsciously)
    Introduction to Surface Design and Two-dimensional Craft Design:
    Study ONE contemporary South African designer/design group that is concerned with social and/or environmental issues (either consciously or subconsciously)
    Introduction to Product Design and Three-dimensional Craft Design:
    Study ONE contemporary South African designer/design group that is concerned with social and/or environmental issues (either consciously or subconsciously)
    Introduction to Environmental Design:
    Study ONE contemporary South African designer/design group that is concerned with social and/or environmental issues (either consciously or subconsciously) 

    Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context
    (cover ALL 4 design categories in each historical period: Greek, Roman, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque)
    Design is used to benefit society and/or the environment introduction to classical design. Choose
    designs from the ancient Greek, Roman, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque periods, for example Visual Communication/Information status symbols in flags, emblems and heraldry, visual storytelling for identification of trade, and symbols in architecture; Surface tapestries, mosaics, frescoes, and surface decorations; Product pottery/vessels, costume/dress, jewellery, and furniture; Environmental architecture, and monuments. 

    History of design
    •   Introduction to Industrial Revolution
    • was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

      The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In the two centuries following 1800, the world's average per capita income increased over 10-fold, while the world's population increased over 6-fold.  In the words of Nobel Prize winning Robert E. Lucas, Jr., "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth. ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before." 

      Starting in the later part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal–based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.  Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways.

      The introduction of steam power fueled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.  The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world, a process that continues as industrialization. The impact of this change on society was enormous. 

      The first Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobsbawm held that it 'broke out' in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. 

      Some 20th century historians such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among historians.  GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.
    1700- 1800
    Mass production, advance technology, cities in Europe grew, capitalists replace aristocracy, graphic design aids the marketing of more products, more material goods (shift from humanist movements), new technology - increase public education and literacy due to more mechanistic book printing, change in typography, new decorative lettering (Egyptian, San Serif, Bold, 3D lettering,  Fonts), novelty typefaces, from metal to wooden lettering, more posters, embellishments, print shops had limited letter blocks, Steam engine invention gave rise to the steam-powered printing press, imbossing, debossing (imprints),
    •   Introduction to Arts and Crafts Movement (plus at least ONE case study): 1850 1900 

    Grade 11
    Content/concepts/skills Design literacy
    •   Design terminology (revision of Grade 10 terminology: elements and principles of design)
    •   Introduction to FIVE universal principles of design such as figure/ground relationship, enhancement of
      usability, increase of appeal, making of better design decisions, and closure (linked to practical task)
    •   Consolidation of Grade 10 introduction to visual communication: symbolic language
    •   History of typography: the structure of type, choosing a font, styling of text, main categories in
      typeface design, and a concise history of font
      Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context
    Signs and symbols, stereotyping, bias and prejudice in design: link to visual communication with the focus on illustrations, cartoons, posters (Weimar, Germany), political propaganda, communism and revolution (Cuba, Russia, China), and resistance in South Africa
    Design in a business context (Research module 2) [10] 

    •   Field trip or relevant visual material to investigate career and tertiary opportunities in design 
    •   Focus for module: analysis of existing design business or, if applicable, a CV and application letter 
      addressed to a tertiary institution for Design 
    •   Research skills: observation, interviews, and data analysis 
    •   Research layout: introduction; content/body; conclusion; and bibliography 

      • History of design (Choose ONE example from each of the Design categories within the following movements)

      •   Recapturing of Industrial Revolution and the Arts and Crafts Movement 
      •   Art Nouveau, 1880 – 1905 
      •   The Bauhaus, 1900 – 1930 
      •   Art Deco, 1925 – 1939 
        History of design (Choose ONE example from each of the Design categories within the following movements)
        •   Scandinavian design 
        •   De Stijl 
        •   The Modernist Age, 1935 – 1955
          Design literacy
           Investigation of popular culture within each of the movements above (Art Nouveau, The Bauhaus, Art
          Deco, Scandinavian design, De Stijl and the Modernist Age), focusing on fashions, music, and social environments through visual analysis (unseen examples of design). Basic terminology that describes and underpins design and characteristics, to be used with confidence
          Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context

           Critically reflect on how design shapes the physical and social environment and demonstrate ways in which design can be used to benefit society. Choose FOUR contemporary international designers from Julie Bargmann, Roy McMakin, Bruce Licher, Cannondale Corporation, Adriana Bertini, Jonathan Bambrook, Lucy Orta, Walter Wood and Victor Papaneck, among others.

          Grade 12 

          History of design
          •   Choose ONE of the design categories in addendum A on which to focus: 
            - Pop/New Age, 1955 – 1975 
            - Post-modernism, 1965 – present (e.g. Deconstructivism, the Virtual Era/social media) 
          •   Revision of design movements studied in Grades 10 and 11 Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context

            Understand and interpret signs and symbols, stereotyping, bias and prejudice in design. Refer to the
            above 2 movements. Refer to ONE contemporary international designer.
            Design in a business context (Research module 2) [10] 
            Focus for module: 
            -  Career opportunities within the design discipline: range, scope, training needed, and training available 
            -  One award-winning South African designer, design agency or company 
            -  Field trip or relevant visual material to investigate career and tertiary opportunities in design 

            Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context
            Study of THREE two- and/or three-dimensional South African and African craft designs, past and present (could include craft centres and community projects):
              An understanding of the ways in which design can be used to reinforce or challenge social, cultural, environmental and ethical issues through the successful use of, for example, signs and symbols, stereotyping, bias and prejudice in design 
              An understanding of the designer’s responsibilities in relation to environmental issues and sustainable design

            History of design
            Brief overview of architecture through, for example, a comparison between the classical amphitheater and the contemporary soccer stadium, or the classical forum and the contemporary shopping mall, according to environment, characteristics, function, needs and uses, and materials used
            Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context
            An understanding of the designer’s responsibilities in relation to environmental issues and sustainable design: Choose THREE award-winning international designers from Ron Arad, Thomas Heatherwick, and Tokujin Yoshioka, among others.
            History of design
            Revision of design movements done from Grades 10 to 12
            Design literacy
            Understand design theory and use design terminology correctly: recognition of characteristics of each movement in all 4 categories of design
            Design in a socio-cultural/environmental and sustainable context
            Revision of case studies previously studied local and international concerned with social and environmental issues:
              An understanding of the ways in which design can be used to reinforce or challenge social, cultural, environmental and ethical issues 
              An understanding and interpretation of signs and symbols, stereotyping, bias and prejudice in design 
              An understanding of the designer’s responsibilities in relation to environmental issues and sustainable design 

            Micro- and Telescopic
            (All Subjects: Research, Experimentation, Projects, Practicals)
            On the Earth are signs/ marvels/ miracles/ symbols, exemplars for those of assured faith, as also in your own selves, will you then not see? (Q51:20,21)
            Control tests and examinations are written under controlled conditions within a specified period of time. Questions in tests and examinations should assess performance at different cognitive levels with an emphasis on process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies to investigate and solve problems in a variety of scientific, technological, environmental and everyday contexts. Examinations papers and control tests in the Physical Sciences in Grades 10-12 could adhere to the weighting of cognitive levels given in Table 1. See APPENDIX 1 for a detailed description of the cognitive levels
            PAPER 1 (PHYSICS)
            PAPER 2 (CHEMISTRY)
            15 %
            15 %
            35 %
            40 %
            Analysis, Application
            40 %
            35 %

            Evaluation, Synthesis
            10 %
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            10 %

            Table 1: Recommended weighting of cognitive levels for examinations and control tests
            Practical investigations and experiments should focus on the practical aspects and the process skills required for scientific inquiry and problem solving. Assessment activities should be designed so that learners are assessed on their use of scientific inquiry skills, like planning, observing and gathering information, comprehending, synthesising, generalising, hypothesising and communicating results and conclusions. Practical investigations should assess performance at different cognitive levels and a focus on process skills, critical thinking, scientific reasoning and strategies to investigate and solve problems in a variety of scientific, technological, environmental and everyday contexts.
            The difference between a practical investigation and an experiment is that an experiment is conducted to verify or test a known theory whereas an investigation is an experiment that is conducted to test a hypothesis i.e. the result or outcome is not known beforehand.
            PROJECTS A project will entail one of the following:(i)  Making of a poster (see recommended topics for grade 10 and 11 in Table 2 below)(ii)  Construction of a device e.g. electric motor(iii)  Building a physical model in order to solve a challenge you have identified using concepts in the FET Physical Sciences curriculum(iv)  Practical investigation 
            Note: The assessment tools used, specifying the assessment criteria for each task, will be dictated by the nature of the task and the focus of assessment. Assessment tools could be one or a combination of rubrics, checklists, observation schedules and memoranda.
                  • page123image7432
                    Physics Topics
                    Chemistry Topics
                    Wave energy Tsunamis
                    •   Solar Energy
                    •   Aurora Borealis
                    •   The discovery of radioactivity.
                    •   The purpose and applications of
                      atmospheric chemistry. Chromatography

                    Nuclear structure, stability and radioactivity
                    Mechanical properties of matter Lasers
                    •   The chemistry of hair and hair products.
                    •   Carbon footprints
                    •   The use and application of polymers
                      in material chemistry.
                    Table 2: Recommended topics for grade 10 and 11 posters

                    In grade 10 and 11 learners will do TWO prescribed experiments for formal assessment (ONE Chemistry and
                    ONE Physics experiment) and ONE project on either Physics or Chemistry. This gives a total of


                    formal assessments in practical work in Physical Sciences in Grades 10 and 11.

                    In grades 10 and 11 it is recommended that learners do FOUR experiments for informal assessment (TWO Chemistry and TWO Physics experiments). This gives a total of FOUR informal assessments in practical work in Physical Sciences in Grades 10 and 11.
                    In grade 12 learners will do THREE prescribed experiments for formal assessment (ONE or TWO Chemistry
                    and ONE or TWO Physics). This gives a total of THREE formal assessments in practical work in Physical
                    Sciences in Grade 12.
                    In grade 12 it is recommended that learners do THREE experiments for informal assessment (TWO Chemistry and ONE Physics experiment OR ONE Chemistry and TWO Physics experiments). This gives a total of THREE informal assessments in practical work in Physical Sciences in Grade 12.
                    Grade 10 and 11
                    Grade 12
                    Practical work
                    Prescribed experiments (formal assessment)
                    Project (formal assessment)
                    ONE either Physics or Chemistry
                    Experiments (informal assessment)
                    7 practical activities
                    page124image27848 page124image28272
                    Practical work
                    Prescribed experiments (formal assessment)
                    OR Prescribed experiments (formal assessment)
                    Project (formal assessment)
                    Experiments (informal assessment)
                    OR Experiments (informal assessment)
                    6 practical activities = 3 Chemistry &and 3 Physics
                    page124image63096 page124image63520
                    The forms of assessment used should be age - and developmental level appropriate. The design of these tasks should cover the content of the subject and include a variety of tasks designed to achieve the objectives of the subject. 

            N.B. Practicals for all subjects can include: Posters on any of the following: Growing Cultures  (mould),  Draw microscopic structures; posters (cycles); experiments, dissecting sheep organs; research, report writing. Get your guidelines from the syllabi then choose some interesting topics you would like to research. 

          Connecting Curriculum Through The Qur'an via the 7th HLL activity area : Micro-& Telescopic
          The above Qur'antic Ayaat focus on specifics that integrate the inner and outer worlds of people into a holistic quest towards worldly and spiritual success. The Capitalistically dissected disciplines which created the subjects, slowly disconnected the reality of the interconnected of all phenomena. This caused endless exploitations, sufferings and maladies. These hardships became reflections for renewed changing in thinking to restore survival, development and progress. The hardships were brought about by our own hands, the sufferings, a test from Allah (SWT), to bring us back to our senses, so that we can rethink our path towards true success - the promise for the true believer, who follows Divine Guidance, has faith. works hard and has patience to persevere towards universally accepted good that will benefit all - as a path towards personal and human success - in this world and the hereafter - Inshaa Allah (God Willing). The following core indicators extracted from the Qur'anic Marvels above should give us the framework through which we can integrate all the FET Subjects in a sequential flow - allowing ourselves to see and appreciate the integrated whole of the learning endeavour.

          The following quote sees that educators are hoping to achieve the above, but unfortunately lack the structural guideline, which I attempt to give through the Universal Guide of The Qur'an.

          "recognise relationships between existing 
          knowledge and new ideas"
          ( from the Life Science/ Biology Curriculum Assessors; specific Aim 1.4) 

        Core Concepts the Qur'an Draws Human's Attention to Reflect upon:

        Seed, Ground, Water, Tree, Fire, Comfort , Hearing, Sight, Feelings, Understanding, Deputies, Ranks, Gifts, Read, Pen, Prosper , Needy, Strive, Miracles.   


    Core FET Physics Topics
    1. Matter & Materials: Gr 10:Revise matter and classification (materials; heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures; pure substances; names and formulas; metals and non-metals; electrical and thermal conductors and insulators; magnetic and nonmagnetic materials). States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory. Atomic structure (models of the atom; atomic mass and diameter; protons, neutrons and electrons; isotopes; energy quantization and electron configuration). Periodic table (position of the elements; similarities in chemical properties in groups, electron configuration in groups). Chemical bonding (covalent bonding; ionic bonding; metallic bonding). Particles substances are made of (atoms and compounds; molecular substances and ionic substances).
    . Gr.11Molecular structure (a chemical bond; molecular shape; electronegativity and bond polarity; bond energy and bond length). Intermolecular forces (chemical bonds revised; types of intermolecular forces; states of matter; density; kinetic energy; temperature; three phases of water (macroscopic properties related to sub-microscopic structure)). Ideal gases (motion and kinetic theory of gases; gas laws; relationship between T and P) . Gr.12. Optical phenomena and properties of materials (photo-electric effect, emission and absorption spectra) 6. Organic chemistry (functional groups; saturated and unsaturated structures; isomers; naming and formulae; physical properties; chemical reactions (substitution, addition and elimination). Organic macromolecules (plastics and polymers) 

    2. Chemical Systems; Gr10. Hydrosphere, Gr.11. Lithosphere (mining; energy resources) 
    Gr.12.Chemical industry (fertilizer industry). 
    3. Chemical Change: Gr.10.Physical and chemical change (separation by physical means; separation by chemical means; conservation of atoms and mass; law of constant composition).Representing chemical change (balanced chemical equations). Reactions in aqueous solution (ions in aqueous solutions; ion interaction; electrolytes; conductivity; precipitation; chemical reaction types) Stoichiometry (mole concept).Gr.11. Stoichiometry (molar volume of gases; concentration; limiting reagents; volume relationships in gaseous reactions) Energy and chemical change (energy changes related to bond energy; exothermic and endothermic reactions; activation energy). Types of reactions (acid-base; redox reactions; oxidation numbers
     Gr.12: Reaction rate (factors affecting rate; measuring rate; mechanism of reaction and of catalysis). Chemical equilibrium (factors affecting equilibrium; equilibrium constant; application of equilibrium principles). Acids and bases (reactions; titrations, pH, salt hydrolysis). Electrochemical reactions (electrolytic and galvanic cells; relation of current and potential to rate and equilibrium; standard electrode potentials; oxidation and reduction half reaction and cell reactions; oxidation numbers; application of redox reactions).

    4. Mechanics (Gr10Introduction to vectors & scalars; Motion in one dimension (reference frame, position, displacement and distance , average speed, average velocity, acceleration, instantaneous velocity, instantaneous speed, description of motion in words, diagrams, graphs and equations.) Energy (gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, conservation of mechanical energy (in the absence of dissipative forces)) . GR.11ectors in two dimensions (resultant of perpendicular vectors, resolution of a vector into its parallel and perpendicular components), Newton’s Laws and Application of Newton’s Laws (Newton‘s first, second and third laws and Newton‘s law of universal gravitation, different kinds of forces: weight, normal force, frictional force, applied (push, pull), tension (strings or cables), force diagrams, free body diagrams and application of Newton‘s laws(equilibrium and non-equilibrium)) . Gr.12. Momentum and Impulse (momentum, Newton‘s second law expressed in terms of momentum, conservation of momentum and elastic and inelastic collisions, Impulse), Vertical projectile motion in one dimension (1D) (vertical projectile motion represented in words, diagrams, equations and graphs), Work, Energy & Power (work , work–energy theorem, conservation of energy with non–conservative forces present, power) 

    5. Waves, Sound, Light. Gr.10. Transverse pulses on a string or spring (pulse, amplitude superposition of pulses), Transverse waves (wavelength, frequency, amplitude, period, wave speed, Longitudinal waves (on a spring, wavelength, frequency, amplitude, period, wave speed, sound waves), Sound (pitch, loudness, quality (tone), ultrasound), Electromagnetic radiation (dual (particle/wave) nature of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, nature of EM radiation, EM spectrum, nature of EM as particle energy of a photon related to frequency and wavelength) Gr.11. Geometrical Optics (Refraction, Snell‘s Law, Critical angles and total internal reflection), 2D & 3D Wave fronts (Diffraction). Gr.12.Doppler Effect (either moving source or moving observer) (with sound and ultrasound, with light red shifts in the universe.)

    6. Electricity & Magnetism. Gr.10.Magnetism (magnetic field of permanent magnets, poles of permanent magnets, attraction and repulsion, magnetic field lines, earth‘s magnetic field, compass), Electrostatics (two kinds of charge, force exerted by charges on each other (descriptive), attraction between charged and uncharged objects (polarisation), charge conservation, charge quantization ),Electric circuits (emf, potential difference (pd), current, measurement of voltage (pd) and current, resistance, resistors in parallel). Gr.11. Electrostatics (Coulomb‘s Law, Electric field), Electromagnetism (Magnetic field associated with current-carrying wires, Faraday‘s Law), Electric circuits (Energy, Power). Gr.12.Electric circuits (internal resistance and seriesparallel networks), Electrodynamics (electrical machines (generators, motors), alternating current)

    Experiments to Do

    Chemistry: Heating and cooling curve of water. Purification and quality of water.The effects of intermolecular forces: boiling points, melting points, surface tension, solubility, capillarity,...Chemistry: Exothermic and endothermic reactions (examples and applications),Preparation of esters, How do you use the titration of oxalic acid against sodium hydroxide to determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide? Make mixtures of sand and water, potassium dichromate and water, iodine and ethanol, iodine and water. Which mixtures are heterogeneous and which mixtures are homogeneous? Do experiment with paper chromatography to show that water soluble ink-pens or ―Smarties‖ are not pure colours, but are mixtures of color. Identify the metals, non-metals and metalloids on the periodic table. Test copper, lead, aluminium, zinc, iron, sulphur, carbon, iodine, graphite and silicon to determine whether they have metallic, metalloid or non-metallic character. How are these elements used in industry? Test the following substance to classify them as conductors, semiconductors or insulators: glass, wood, graphite, copper, zinc, aluminium and materials of your own choice.Test the following substance to classify them as magnetic, or nonmagnetic: glass, wood, graphite, copper, zinc, aluminium, iron nail and materials of your own choice.Start with ice in a glass beaker and use a thermometer to read the temperature every 10 seconds when you determine the heating curve of water. Do the same with the cooling curve of water starting at the boiling point. Give your results on a graph.  Describe the structure of the atom in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons. Make a drawing to show your interpretation of the structure of an atom. Flame tests to identify some metal cations and metals. NaCl, CuCl2, CaCl2, KCl and metals copper powder, magnesium, zinc powder, iron powder etc.Use ―Jelly Tots  and tooth picks or play dough to make visual presentations of atoms, molecules, compounds, elements, Show macroscopically what happens when ice is heated in a glass beaker to liquid and further to gas. Separation reactions like distillation, filtration and paper-chromatography can be used to indicate physical change. Mix iron and sulphur and separate with a magnet. Prove the law of Conservation of matter by (1) reacting lead(II) nitrate with sodium iodide, and (2) reacting sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid and (3) reacting Cal-C-Vita tablet with water.Investigate different types of solutions (table salt in water, KMnO4 in water, NaOH in water, KNO3 in water) and write balanced equations for each.  Investigate different types of reactions in aqueous medium and write balanced ionic equations for the different reaction types. Dissolve respectively 500 mg sugar, sodium chloride, calcium chloride and ammonium chloride in 1 ml water. Measure the temperature each time. What does this tell you about the reaction taking place? Evaporate the water afterwards. What does this tell you about the reaction?dentify CHEMICAL REACTION TYPES experimentally: -precipitation-gas forming reactions -acid-base reactions -redox reactions. Study the ecology of the dams built to provide water for communities.The purification and quality of water.Draw Lewis structures of the elements and determine the number of bonds the element can make. Build the five ideal molecular shapes with Atomic Model kits or with Jelly Tots and tooth picks. Boyle's Law - Pressure gauge. 10 ml syringe, 3 cm silicone tubing to attach syringe to pressure gauge, water bowl.Investigate endothermic reactions as for example ammonium nitrate and water, potassium nitrate and water and magnesium sulphate and water . Investigate exothermic reactions as for example calcium chloride and water, dry copper(II) sulphate and water and lithium and water. (Identify and explain the applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions in everyday life and industry) .Burn magnesium ribbon in air or oxygen and draw a rough energy graph of your results. Use acid base reactions to produce and isolate salts.Learner could investigate the mining industries not chosen by the teacher. Gold; Coal; Copper; Iron; Zinc; Manganese; Chrome; Platinum and Pt group metals (PGM‘s); Diamonds. Alkanes and alkenes reactions with bromine water and potassium permanganate. (Indication of saturation and unsaturation) ,Cross-linkingpolymers–white wood glue and borax to make ―silly putty.Effect of concentration – vinegar and baking soda. Effect of temperature – vinegar and baking soda; Alka Seltzer or Cal-C-Vita. Effect of temperature and concentration – potassium iodate (0.01 M), soluble starch, NaS2O3 and H2SO4 (iodine clock reaction).  Effect of catalyst – hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide; burning a sugar cube with and without dipping in activated carbon. Also adding a piece of copper to the reaction between zinc and HCl will accelerate the rate.Reaction rate and the influence of all the rate factors in the reaction of Zn and HCl. Equilibrium and the factors influencing equilibrium on the equilibrium of CoCl2 and H2O.Designing and performing an experiment to investigate effects of pH on equilibrium systems such as:
    Br2(aq) + H2O(l) ⇄ HOBr(aq) + H+(aq) + Br-(aq)
    Cr2O72-(aq) + H2O(l) ⇄ 2CrO42-(aq) +n2H+(aq)
    Investigating the actions of dilute acids on metals, metal carbonates, metal hydrogen carbonates, metal oxides and metal hydroxides.(revision of grade 11), Searching for information about hazardous nature of acids and bases. Performing experiments to investigate the corrosive nature of concentrated acids and bases (drain cleaners, battery acid, swimming pool acid etc.) Investigate the temperature change in a neutralisation process. Using a titration experiment to determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar or the concentration of sodium hydroxide in drain cleaner. Do acid-base titration experiments to determine presence of acid in a compound (% of ethanoic acid in vinegar etc.) 

    Physics: Electric circuits with resistors in series and parallel - measuring potential difference and current. Acceleration.Investigate the relationship between force and acceleration (Verification of Newton‘s second law)
    Snell‘s Law,Conservation of linear momentum Determine the internal resistance of a battery.Set up a series-parallel network with known resistor. Determine the equivalent resistance using an ammeter and a voltmeter and compare with the theoretical value. Use a ripple tank to demonstrate constructive and destructive interference of two pulses.Generate a longitudinal wave in a spring.Making a string (or wire) telephone. The electrolysis of water (sodium sulphate added) to give products. Identify the elements and the compounds. Pattern and direction of the magnetic field around a bar magnet.Rubbing a balloon aBgailnlosot n dry hair. Bring a charged balloon, rubbed against dry hair, near a stream of smooth flowing water (laminar flow).Set up a circuit to measure the emf and potential difference and get learners to try to account for the discrepancy.Use a long straight track, a curved track, a toy car and a meter rule to illustrate the concept of position, distance and displacement. Make cardboard arrows to represent vector quantities.Measurement of velocity - ticker timer and tape, power supply, trolley, inclined plane, retort stand, ruler.Roll a trolley down an inclined plane with a ticker tape attached to it and use the data to plot a position vs. time graph.Spring balance, several blocks (of the same material) of varying sizes with hooks attached on one end. Different textures; rough, smooth etc.nvestigate the relationship between force and acceleration (Verification of Newton‘s second law)-Trolleys, different masses, incline plane, rubber bands, meter rule, ticker tape apparatus, ticker timer and graph paper.Propagation of light from air into glass and back into air.
    Propagation of light from one medium into other medium. Get learners to observe the magnetic field around a current carrying wire.Solenoid, bar magnet, galvanometer, connecting wires.Obtain current and voltage data for a resistor and light bulb and determine which one obeys Ohm‘s law.Air-track with blower. Two trolleys, pulley, two photo-gates, two retort stands, dual timer, metre-stick, black card, set of equal weights
    OR Two spring-loaded trolleys, stop-watch, meter-stick, two barriers. Draw a graph of position vs. time and velocity vs. time for a free falling object. AND Use the data to determine the acceleration due to gravity.Perform simple experiments to determine the work done in walking up (or running up a flight of stairs). By timing the run and walk (same flight of stairs) one can enrich the concept of power.Doppler effect -Tuning fork (or small sound source), string.Determine the internal resistance of a battery.Set up a series parallel network with known resistor. Determine the equivalent resistance using an ammeter and a voltmeter and compare with the theoretical value.
     Set up a series parallel network with an ammeter in each branch and external circuit and voltmeters across each resistor, branch and battery, position switches in each branch and external circuit. Use this circuit to investigate short circuits and open circuits.Build a simple electric generator.Build a simple electric motor.Photoelectric effect
    Electrolysis of water and Sodium iodide. Find the Galvanic cell wit the highest potential Reduction of metal ions and halogens. Stoichiometry of production of N, P, K in industry.Discuss advantages of inorganic fertilizers.Discuss alternatives to inorganic fertilizers (IKS).Discuss how the public can help to prevent eutrophication. 

    Life Science FET Practicals  

    • Life Science (Biology)
      Learners must
    •   access information. 
    •   select key ideas. Specific Aim 1.1 
    •   recall information 
    •   describe knowledge of natural sciences. 
    •   build a conceptual framework. 
    •   organise or reorganise knowledge 
    •   write summaries Specific Aim 1.2 
    •   develop flow charts and mind maps 
    •   recognise patterns and trends 
    •   apply knowledge in new contexts. 
    •   use knowledge in a new way Specific Aim 1.3 
    •   analyse information/data 
    •   critically evaluate scientific information 
    •   recognise relationships between existing 
      knowledge and new ideas.
    •   identify assumptions 
    •   categorise information 

    Practical Investigations

    Construct models of simple and more complex molecules using beads or plasticine. Construct models of simple and more complex molecules using beads or plasticine.Food tests for starch, glucose, lipids and proteins.Investigation to test the working of a “biological” washing powder (with enzymes).
    Hydrogen Peroxide and chicken liver to demonstrate effect of enzyme.

    Fresh pineapple juice, solid egg white in plastic drinking straw. Observe, measure and record results of the experiment done at different temperatures.

    Compare Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) with usual diet of individual learners.
    Draw a pie chart of the food types and discuss implications of the usual diet of learners. 
    Explain and demonstrate how a light microscope works.

    Observe and record (draw) the structure of a
    • -  Plant cell (wet mount of onion epidermis)
    • -  Animal cell (cheek cells) using a light microscope.
      If microscopes are not available, use micrographs.
    • -  Calculate magnification of drawing by measuring the field of view under a microscope
    • -  calculate the size of
      specimen on a micrograph using the scale line provided
    •   Investigate diffusion
    •   Investigate osmosis 

     Use suitable resources to examine cell division e.g. microscope slides, micrographs, posters, models

    Research and present information on ONE of the cancers. This must include causes, prevalence and treatment. Information can be presented verbally or as a written report. 

    Examine and identify some plant tissues using microscope, biostrips, micrographs or posters.
    Draw cells that make up these tissues to show specialised structure.
    Examine and identify some animal tissues using microscope, biostrips, micrographs or posters. Draw cells that make up these tissues to show specialised structure. 

    Collect information on ONE field of biotechnology related to plant or animal tissues e.g. cloning, stem cell research, in vitro fertilization.
    Observe and draw a section of a dicotyledonous leaf

    • Use a microscope or micrographs to observe and draw cross sections of root and stem (plan only).
    •   If microscopes available make mounts of, and draw, whole xylem vessels from celery or pumpkin stalks to see secondary thickening patterns
    •   Observe annual rings in a cut tree to assess age and climatic conditions
    •   Design an investigation to discover the effect of temperature, light intensity or humidity on transpiration rate. (using a simple potometer). Identify variables and control variables Investigate water uptake through the roots
        Investigate water movement through xylem (use Impatiens if possible). 

     Observe human skeleton (model or photographs).

    Observe as many of these tissues as possible: fresh material from a butcher. 

    Observe and describe the movement which occurs at
    of these types of joints. If possible: X-ray of ball and
    socket and hinge joints.
    Dissection of mammal heart (sheep, cow or pig) obtained from a butchery. Identify chambers, valves, muscle, blood vesels.
    In pairs, measure the pulse of one learner before and after exercise. Record, interpret and explain data presented as a graph.
    Observe and draw prepared microscope slides or micrographs of blood cells and blood vessels as seen in cross section.
    Draw up a table of differences between different types of blood vessels
    Choose ONE ecosystem (close to the school) within a local biome for special study. The study must deal with all of the following:
    •   abiotic and biotic factors and the interactions between them.
    •   trophic relationships in an ecosystem
    •   record and describe seasonal changes over 2 terms; either term 1 and 2 or term 3 and 4
    •   biodiversity within the ecosystem using field guides and keys
    •   positive and/or negative human impact/influence on the ecosystem
      Different groups should investigate different factors.
      Each group must plan, collect, record and present, analyse and evaluate data.
      (This serves as an introduction/link to human influences on the environment in Grade 11.)
      Principles of classification. Grouping everyday objects on the basis of shared similarities. A simple nested hierarchy.
      Construct a timeline showing the history of life on Earth. The timeline should show all the key events from the emergence of the earliest life forms to the present day to emphasise the long history of life.
      Research the “missing link” between dinosaurs and birds (Archaeopteryx)
      Research the “link” between fish and amphibians (Coelacanth). Present a verbal or written report. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the extinction, 65 million years ago, such as the meteorite impact theory and the vulcanism (in India) theory. 

      Select ONE of these hypotheses and describe the evidence scientists have gathered in support of it. (Nature of science)
      Examine fossils at a museum or fossil site or look at photographs of fossils. Optional: Use plaster of Paris to construct a “fossil”. 
     Map the Key Event locations on a map of South Africa
     Where possible, the prevalence of bacteria/fungi should be demonstrated by growing cultures on agar plates, or bread mould (fungus) on bread.Look for evidence of bacterial/ fungal diseases on plants (school and home)
     Observe and draw relevant macroscpic parts to provide examples of each of the following divisions:
    •   bryophytes: moss plant
    •   pteridophytes: rhizome, frond with
    •   gymnosperms: needles, cones and
    •   angiosperms: flower, fruit and
      Draw up a phylogenetic tree showing the evolutionary history of the 4 plant groups and major structural changes in their history of development.
      Dissect an example of each of the following types of flowers:
      •   wind pollinated
      •   insect pollinated
      •   bird pollinated
        Record observations as a comparative table.
        Optional: Germinate seeds: record process

        • Calculate approximate surface area: volume ratios of selected examples.
        •   Observe examples from as many phyla as possible (photographs/DVD’s).
        •   Select one phylum and design a poster to show diversity in that phylum in South Africa.
        •   Construct a comparative table of these four key features in these six phyla. 

        • Relationship between body plan and grouping of animals in phyla. Concept of a phylum.
        •   Six phyla (out of about 30 in the animal kingdom): Porifera
          Platyhelminthes Annelida

        •   Key features in respect of body plans:
          symmetry and cephalisation
          number of tissue layers developed from embryo number of openings in the gut
          coelom and blood systems

          Relationship between body plans and modes of living for each of the six phyla: similarities and differences
        ● Role of invertebrates in agriculture and ecosystems (eg pollination, decomposition, soil aeration etc) 

        • Investigate photosynthesis by showing that
          starch is produced during
          light is necessary for
        •   The following investigations can be done (by learners) as experiments or as demonstrations:
          •   carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis
          •   chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis.
          •   oxygen is produced during photosynthesis.

          •   data can be provided and interpreted by learners.
          • Obtain intestines of a sheep from a butcher and trace the passage food will take.
            Cut open the stomach, portion of the small intestine and portion of the large intestine to compare the structure of the wall in each.

            Design an investigation or demonstration to show that:
            •   oxygen is used by living
              organisms during respiration.
            •   carbon dioxide is produced by living organisms during respiration

              Use books end on end and one on top of another, to illustrate and calculate the differences in respect of surface area to volume ratio which is caused by different shapes: eg. flatworm (Planaria) and an earthworm
              Observe and investigate the structure of lungs, associated diaphragm pulmonary blood vessels and heart of a pig or a sheep obtained from a butcher.

              Construct a model of the human breathing system. Explain limitations of the model.
              Demonstrate that expired air contains carbon dioxide.
              Measure and compare depth of breathing of two or more learners and the effect of exercise on breathing/pulse rate. Interpret data on depth and rate of breathing.
              Analyse and interpret data showing the effects of altitude on number of red blood cells  

              Dissection of sheep kidney (obtained from butchery) with a work sheet to identify the following: capsule, cortex, medulla, pyramids, blood vessels, pelvis, ureter, hilum. Draw and label the dissected kidney

              Determine size of population by quadrant or simple sampling eg. simulated mark/recapture. Collect and record data. Interpret data. Calculate/estimate population

              Rationale for culling e.g. elephants in Kruger National Park as an example of an application of estimating population size (link to researched reasons for culling) Draw up public survey form to test public opinion about culling. Show results in a pie graph.
              Draw a life cycle of bilharzia parasite or tapeworm (Simplify larval stages)
              Identify area in or close to school grounds where succession is/has taken place. (e.g. in the goal area on the sports field at the end of a season or a roadside that has been scraped).


     Practical observation of ONE example of human influence on the environment in the local area (e.g.impact of alien species on biodiversity). Written report on the chosen example.

    Rhino poaching in South Africa-Read articles and make suggestions on how it can be prevented.

    Analyse solid waste generated in the household in one week: paper, metals, plastic. Estimate the percentage that could be recycled or reused.
    Visit a municipal landfill site, or local refuse dump, observe rehabilitation (or lack thereof) in practice. Assess the effectiveness of waste management.

    Grade 12

    simple process to extract DNA and examine the threads .DNA “finger printing” /DNA profiling: (case study only). Observe and draw prepared microscope slides or micrographs or models of cells in selected stages of meiotic cell division. e.g. crossing over in metaphase I; anaphase I, metaphase II, telophase II. Prepared microscope slides of ovary and testes. Section through penis.
    Identify tissues and different structures. Observe and describe prepared microscope slides or micrographs or ultrasound pictures of embryonic development. Observe stages of pregnancy DVD’s of development of embryo and birth process. Observe contraceptive devices

    Solving genetic problems
    •   Monohybrid crosses
    •   Dihybrid crosses
    •   Complete and incomplete dominance
    •   Blood groups
    •   Sex chromosomes and sexually linked
      diseases eg. haemophilia and colour
    •   Genetic lineages

      Model of brain or sheep brain in order to observe regions of brain.
      • Identify cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord
      •   Cross section of spinal cord to observe the white and grey matter.
      •   Design an investigation to determine the reaction time of different learners to a timulus. Record the results and calculate the average time. Calculate the distance that will be travelled by a car travelling at 100 km per hour within the average reaction time. Apply this knowledge to safe driving: following distances
        Dissection of eye of sheep or pig. Observe regions. Worksheet to be used to follow instructions in the dissecting and observation of significant parts.

        Research disorders caused by under-and over secretion of at least one hormone. Different learners should research different hormones. Brief written report.

        Observe prepared microscope slide of section through human skin or use micrograph or model. Identify main features.
        Design investigations to show geotropism and phototropism. Identify the variables and recommend ways to control the variables. Record the results and interpret the results. 

        Demonstration of natural selection using games, e.g. camouflage
        Research one example of artificial selection. Present findings in a report. 

        Poster presentation:
        Map out the three major phases in hominid evolution from 6 mya to the present:
        •   Ardipithecus(Ethiopia)
        •   Australopithecus (East and South
        •   Homo (various sites)
          The map/timeline should show the diagnostic features and the approximate times that examples of the three major genera existed. If is not necessary to show the relationships between genera. (Scientists may interpret relationships differently as new evidence is found)

          Poster presentation: Map out the changes in the evolution of the Genus: Homo. The map/timeline should show where the different fossils have been found and the approximate periods that the selected examples existed. The most significant features of each type of fossil (Genus and species) to illustrate the difference between them.
          Research and discussion to share information about different explanations: cultural or religious explanations.