Friday, December 23, 2011

Holistic Integrated Text:HLL

Integrating the various disciplines into a Whole to motivate Appreciation to Allah, The Exalted, for life's resources He Granted us - Al-gham-du lil-laa-hi Rob-bil-'aa-la-meen (Praise be To God, Lord, Sustainer of all universes).

The Holistic Integrated Text for Holistic Leisure Learning (HLL) provides the learners of ICRA Comprehensive Schools (ICS) with one free textbook for all grades. Its contents are guided by the ICS Exam Guidelines' questions and it is written with increasing language difficulty and explanations to accommodate different grade learners. Learners from Grade 4-9 (GET) can then see the depth of knowledge they need at higher grade levels and in this way accelerate their learning capacity through self-study. The Holistic Integrated Text approaches the content via the self-integrated activity areas of HLL - Nature, People, Languages, Trade, Calculations, Construction, and Micro-& Telescopic. People are part of Nature. Language is necessary for people to communicate. Trade is the business communication which makes livelihood possible. Calculations are necessary for successful trade and living. Construction is a result of accurate calculations. Everything in the Micro-and Telescopic worlds are meticulously / perfectly constructed. Learners will be able to check whether their answers to the research questions from the ICS Exam Guidelines are correct. The TEXT serves as the memorandum and allows learners to access it online straight from their cell-phones or simply download the full text from the knol for their continuous reference. Their test now is their personal honesty to complete their assignments and research before they look at the answer. This personal honesty test allows them to develop spiritual integrity in their learning process - a Challenge in Islam. It is hoped that all children of the world will benefit from this Knol created for ICS learners

The Holistic Integrated Text
for Holistic Leisure Learning Learners
@ ICRA Comprehensive Schools
by: Mogamat Faadiel Arnold (HPTD,B.A. Ph.D.H.C)

NATURE (Q57:1-4)
(Basic Integration of: Natural Science & Life Sciences)
Whatever is in the Heavens and Earth Praise and Glorify Allah: and He is Exalted in Might, The Wise. 

Energy is the force that moves everything and everyone in the universe. Allah (SWT) Created Energy and therefore people cannot destroy it or create it. It is always there as long as Allah (SWT) wants to Give it to people and the universe. It makes things live, grow, duplicate and change. When everything dies the energy in it changes into different forms of energy that give life to other things.

The Principle of Conservation of Energy: “Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another.

Nature (land, sea, air, space, animals, insects, mountains etc.) is a large energy source granted to people by Allah (SWT), Who Loves us and wants us to be happy, safe, comfortable, growing and successful. In Nature Allah (SWT) has placed different creations that support each other so that life can continue until He Calls us and everything back to Him.

Sources of Energy – where energy is stored and can be released from: The Sun, The Sea, Food, Light, Waves, Combustion(burning), Chemicals, Nucleus, Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Volcanoes, Wind. Animals-, Insects-,Human bodies. Rocks, Minerals, all things/ substances that have body (can be seen), mass (amount of kilograms), weight (the force it is pulled to the Earth's centre) and volume (the space it occupies) and Biomass (all the rotting substances)

There are different types of Energy – each having different characteristics (behaviours) – Solar energy (from the sun), Radiant Energy (light), Chemical Energy (in chemicals), Potential Energy (the forces that lie in a substance waiting(dormant) to be freed), Kinetic Energy ( in moving objects/people), Sound Energy (what we, animals and insects can hear), Nuclear Energy (from the nucleus of atoms).

There are Renewable Energies (solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, air, sea tides) and Non-renewable Energies (Fossil fuels-oil, gas, coal; sand, clay, salt, gravel – extracted non-metals; re-cyclable metallic extracts from ore – rocks with metal in it – iron, copper, aluminium, gold)

Some people waste energy. They leave lights on, open hot water taps for every hand-wash, keep heaters on, put one item in dryers etc. Then there are other people who make an effort to save energy: they use energy saving bulbs, put lights on only when they are in a place (although their house is not in general darkness), They use hot-water bottles, blankets, extra clothing to heat themselves. They have solar energy geyser systems.

The Solar (Sun's) Energy is used by plants to make their own food. This is called Photosynthesis – It is to combine minerals(Nitrates, Phosphates, Magnesium) and water from the soil, the carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air and the light and heat energy from the sun to make food(starch) in the leaves (factory) of the plant. The plant stores the foods it made in the form of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and glucose(sugars) in different parts of its body. This is why we eat fruit and vegetables to get our needed nutrients(food) and energy. We cannot make our own food, because we have no leaves.We are consumers(eaters of plants and animals) and not producers(plants, the builders of food from the sun's energy)

There are different energies involved in each event: When working: Oxygen is breathed in (mechanical energy), then Gaseous exchange in the lungs (chemical energy), Oxygen in the blood burns up food in the cells to release energy (combustion, chemical, heat energies), energy transported via nerves to the to move the muscles (chemical, kinetic energies) - then work is done.

When a ball is thrown through a window: Chemical energy for food combustion is employed, Heat energy is released. Kinetic energy of the movement of the arm. Potential energy of the arm into the ball. The release of the ball and its movement is Kinetic energy the heat energy breaks the window and the sound energy of the shattered glass can be heard. As the glass falls the kinetic energy of the glass pieces can be seen. All the different energies added up is equal to the energy of the food that was burnt up in the thrower's body.

Car driving in a street: Combustion of the petrol, released a force – Mechanical energy that drives the engine parts; the motion of the car is the Kinetic energy created by the potential energy that was released from the petrol.

Electricity is made/ generated by the turning of turbines which through friction build up large/ enormous electrical charges that can be sent through large cables in power stations and then sent through sub-stations
( each breaking the enormous electrical charges into small amounts) until it can be used in homes.

The turbines can be turned using steam when coal is burned (Coal Electricity)/ uranium atoms break up in nuclear power stations (nuclear electricity). Water (hydro-electricity) can also turn the turbines when waves, waterfalls move it, mills also used water to turn the concrete wheel to ground wheat grass into flour. Wood, oil and gas can also be burned to create steam which drives the turbines (propellers on a shaft that create friction which loosen electrons).

Generators are attached to turbines and it captures the electrons turbines loosen and combines them along cables carried on pylons to wires in the homes. 74% of South Africa's electricity is generated/make in coal power stations; 3% in hydro electrical plants, 15% through gas/oil power stations 2% in Nuclear Power stations.

Plants, People and animals also have energy. Plants trap and store energy from the sun into them. Animals and people eat the plants to get their energy. The energy is trapped in the food we eat. It is released by the oxygen we breathe in. The oxygen burns up the food and the energy in it is released.

The released energy in our bodies is used for body movements(locomotion), breathing (Gaseous exchange), digestion (taking in food into the bloodstream), nutrition(eating, chewing food absorbtion), reproduction (having babies), growth, healing, thoughts, learning and all other functions which make people alive. Animals need energy for the same life functions.

When we are bored, our energy is used up by our thoughts of things that would make us happy and the feelings of disappointment of not having it. This drains the body of energy and the body becomes numb and inactive. The person just sits on one spot – bored. We say the person is not motivated. Such a person feel down, dejected, heavy, sad and always tired.

Motivation is the opposite of boredom. It is positive thoughts a person has, which release positive energies that make him/her tackle work of play with enthusiasm. This is a feeling of lightness, excitement, eagerness and a sense of achievement that drives him or her to be creative and complete lots of tasks. Such people achieve a lot and these achievements build in them more and more energy. They never seem to get tired.

A food chain is a series of living things and how they eat to get(gain) energy. The first, bottom level of a food chain (trophic(light using) level) is always the plants. The plants and grasses are the producers/ the trappers of sun's energy and the producers of food for themselves, animals and humans. The producers form the largest amount in the trophic level/ food chain. The herbivores (only plant eating animals) are less than the producers, but more than the next level, the carnivores (only meat eating animals/ those that eat the herbivores). The carnivores are less than the herbivores but more than the next level, the Omnivores(those animals and people that eat plants and animals to get all the energy they need. The food chain forms a pyramid with Omnivores at the top and producers at the bottom.

An example of a food chain is : Producers (grass and plants trap the sun's energy and light to produce their own food in the form of carbohydrates), Herbivores (sheep and goats eat grass and get their energy from it), Carnivores (hyenas, foxes eat sheep and goats to get their energy), Omnivores (lions and humans eat sheep, goats, goats, fruit and grass – Muslims do not eat carnivores like hyenas and foxes, but other people who live in the wild, do eat them.

Living organisms (animals, insects, plants, humans) need energy for movement (locomotion), nutritions(feeding), excretion (getting rid of waste matter in the body (sweat, urea, excrement, feces), gaseous exchange (breathing), growth, healing, reproduction and all functions that allow it to continue to live healthily.

Ask your parents to give the the slips of electricity they buy for the month. Now add the units and the amounts to calculate the number of units and cost for the month. Try and reduce the use of some of your regular electricity usage and see how much electricity you can save. Normal consumption is R200 for 163 units. This works out to: If R200=163units then Rx=1unit, cross multiply
= (Rx)(163)=(R200)(1)
then x = (200)/divide by 163
= R1,23 per unit electricity now check your answer 1,23 x 163 = R200 that's good.

Electricity comes to the homes from a large power station. Eskom generates large electrical charges in the big Mpumalanga Power plant and transports this power (25000 volts) through/via step-up transformers to cables on pylons and via sub-stations to electrical poles in the streets and from its wires into the homes of South Africans and other African countries which Eskom also supplies. This power is then further broken down in your meter box to each plug and light socket via parallel electrical connections.

When creating an electrical power plant model(solar, nuclear, coal, wind, hydro(water) generated power stations) use materials that are inexpensive. Styrofoam – used in packaging is good, but you need a sharp knife/ warm wire – just be very careful and do it in the presence of adults. The best material to used is box cardboard – you can strip it also to make wheels. Wood glue is very good to use when sticking corrugated(box) cardboard.

Energy is needed in homes for lights, appliances, computers, heater and the geyser. The industry need electricity for the machines and their lights and other appliances. Space travels need energy for the rocket boosters and engines.

Resources are materials needed to create products, offer services or enjoyment. Examples of resources are oil, people, wood, diamonds, coal, food, water etc.

South Africa has many resources with which products are made: coal, oil, diamonds, sheep, grasses, fruit, vegetables, uranium, gold, fish, manganese, textiles, sugar cane, copper, tin, titanium, tourism, scenery, diverse cultures, platinum, sand, friendly people, machinery, vanadium, wheat, beef, poultry, phosphates, dairy products, wood, mutton, natural gas, nickel, iron, chromium, manganese, wool, iron.

Our houses must have resources to function effectively(well) – cleaning materials, electricity, appliances, computers, water, tools, medicine, clothes, food, drinks, transport, security (locks, doors), windows for fresh air etc.

School resources include: desks, boards, computers, teachers, chalk, white board pens, chairs, laboratories, classrooms, proper buildings, office, storeroom, filing cabinets etc.

Natural Resources can be divided into; Renewable (that can last forever and be used over and over) and Non-renewable(those that are limited. It can be used up. It must be looked after. It must be preserved) resources. Renewable resources include; sun, wind, water, sea tides, plants, animals, fresh air, fertile/good soil. Non-renewable resources include: fossil fuels, coal, gas, oil, sand, clay, salt, gravel, iron, copper, aluminium, gold.

A resource is a means/ a needed thing to make something. A product is a thing which was made out of different resources and it is ready to be sold. A product is a man-made, completed thing ready to use or sell. A resource is a raw material that is needed to make a product. Examples: you need resources such as metal and tools to make a product like a hammer. You need the resources: flour, water, essence, baking trays and a stove to bake a cake – the product.

South Africa's water, coal and wild life are non-renewable resources and must be used carefully. If we do not use it sparingly, we will run out of water, coal and animals for food and electricity to use. If we do not look after our resources we will suffer illnesses and can die. Some of the wildlife that are endangered in South Africa are the: riverine rabbit, golden mole, martial eagle, Egyptian vulture, ground hornbill, halfmens, crane, black rhino.
The loss of any resource (oil/ cement/ Carbon dioxide etc.) will result in the stoppage of the production of many products that need the specific resources. This will cause factories to lose sales and profits. These businesses will then close down and the workers of the business will lose their jobs. People who lose their jobs cannot buy food and clothes for their children and cannot pay their rent. The families of the unemployed workers will then be exposed to many hardships even death. You can now see how important it is for people to save and look after natural resources and not to waste water, electricity etc.

If the people of a country waste their resources they will suffer loss of jobs, increase in suffering and crime and loses of lives and a general decline of the country. Other countries that are more powerful will then take over and rule the people who wasted their resources.
When a country does not use its resources properly, it will become weak. Countries who used their resources better will become powerful. The powerful country will then attack the weaker country – declare a war and steal the weak county's resources and take the people as prisoners to work for them.

Steel, iron, bolts, spanners,
Cordon dioxide, water, colouring
Coal, Turbines, generators, wires, pylons
Classrooms, books, pens, computers

Now create more for this table

Wars are fought to grab resources (including people) of other countries. This happened in Europe (Napoleon, Hitler), South Africa (Dutch, British), China (Japan), Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya (America) and many other countries. Presently the United Nations (Europe and America) are trying to steal the land from Gaddafi's oil rich country - Libya. Europe and America are currently suffering an economic downturn due to the enormous debt of the USA and Europe governments, causing lots of unemployment in their countries that is why they are attacking countries with oil, because free oil/ cheap oil with reduce the expenses for producing products which they can sell at higher prices to make bigger profits for their own people.

People are also resources. They have energy and strengths that allow them to work the lands and machinery of a country. They also have intelligence and skills that allow them to create new products and services which create new businesses and thus increase the number of jobs that can be given to people. The more people plan, work and create the more people earn and the richer the country becomes. This means if productivity of the people is high, the development of the country is secured/great. The more a country develops, the more it grows, the more streets, buildings and businesses it has. The more advance the people are, the better their lifestyle and the more comfortable they are. People are resources when they create, work and manage their natural resources.

The advantage of using or saving resources efficiently/effectively is that the profits/ benefits will increase and the losses will decrease for a person or a nation. If resources are used effectively then it can be used again and again and even be improved as the years go by and people learn more ways of using the same material more effectively through scientific research and application. The re-use of materials/resources so that it can last forever is called sustainability.

Global warming has occurred because people produced so much air pollution with cars, factories, and aircrafts, that the Earth's heat from the sun could not escape. This created an increase in land temperature which caused a global warming of temperature. The soot and pollution in the air (from cars, factories, fires, aeroplanes) also travel to the North Poles and settle on the ice as black powdery debris(waste) called cryoconite. Black Cryoconite absorb from the sun and melts more ice, causing a meltdown of glaziers. The pollution in the air also caused the atmosphere to lose some of its protective ozone layer, which allowed more of the sun's heat and damaging rays to enter the earth. More ice melted at the North Pole , which caused the seas to rise, displaced people, animals and the loss of many industries/ businesses along the coastlines.

Water, clean air, fertile land, human skills, minerals and oil are the most important resources. These resources help people grow and progress. Water is needed for living , food, plant irrigation (watering). Fertile land is needed to grow food. Human skills are needed to create businesses, work in the fields and in companies to create products and services for trade. Trading allows money to flows through the country which creates more business and progress. People skills are also needed to invent new products and services to advance people's lives. Minerals are needed to replace materials or to make new materials. Oil is needed for transport and machinery to keep the economy running and jobs intact. The loss of resources means loss of jobs, income and life.

People can conserve/save, use resources sparingly. Don't waste water. Don't waste electricity. Do not litter. Learn, explore and invent so that resources are used for more than one purpose. Recycle, Re-use and reduce the consumption of products that destroy the environment. Not to waste water is the most crucial act of conservation. Do not pollute in any way. Create gardens and plant trees to reduce the Carbon dioxide in the air (because plants inhale Carbon Dioxide and give off oxygen – photosynthesis) . The trees and plants also replace the lost oxygen in the air. Plants refresh air and provide fruit and vegetables as well as new habitat (places to live) for more insects and animals that pollinate fruit and veg plants faster and then more fruits and veg can grow. Planting gardens and trees increase food an health for all people.

Conservation means to look after something carefully so that it can last for generations to come. It is necessary to conserve water, land, clean air, minerals, oil and gas so that people can have good health and jobs so that they can earn from businesses that use the resources to create products and services to trade/ make business.

Some ways to conserve the resources needed for human, animal and plant survival; clean up waste dumps and plant trees and grass. Clean up rivers and keep the water unpolluted. Warn through posters about hazardous waste (dangerous). Report factories that dump waste. Get involved with conservation projects such as cleaning the beaches, tree planting projects, re-cycling paper, plastic, cardboard, metal projects, creating reserves, national parks (where animals and plants and protected from human damage. Use energy(electricity) and water more sparingly. Assist reporting exploitation(damaging/ stealing) of land, animals or trees. Remove alien(plants from other countries) that kill indigenous (South African) plants.
Protecting the Wetlands (where water animals and plants live) is important for conservation. Wetlands create moisture in the air, through the evaporation of water, which encourage the formation of clouds and thus increase rainfall. Rainfall is crucial (important) for people, animal and plant survival. Without rain no grass, food and vegetables will grow and the animals and people will die.

Water can be saved by: not letting taps run or drip unnecessary. Cover plant soil with gravel, ground cover plants or dried leaves. This prevents fast evaporation (rising of water vapour) and soil stay wet longer, thus watering plants is then reduced. Water plants in the morning or evening when the sun is not so hot. This also reduces evaporation and reduces the times of wasting water on more plant watering. Wash the car with a bucket of water and not with a hosepipe. Shower more than have full tub baths. Fix all leaking or dripping pipes and taps. Collect water from roof downpipes for the garden watering. Use less dishes to eat and drink from so that you do not waste water with dish-washing.

South African Department of Water Affairs saves water on a large scale through recycling water plants – where used water is disinfected and cleaned to use in factory machines and production plants; Improved irrigation systems (watering farms); desalination of seawater (taking the salt out of seawater) for drinking purposes and to water farms. New water storage systems are being created. SA has 320 dams (water storage systems – Steenbras, The Vaal, The Gariep and The Vonderkloof. Dams are built in the way of large rivers. The water is stored and treated and send to housed and factories. When the dams are full flood gates are opens to release the excess water to prevent the dam from breaking and the land from flooding. When there is little rain the government restrict the citizens water use to ensure that everyone gets water until it rains again. In drought times Muslims pray together – like a Ju-mu-'a for rain.
Air pollution, like water pollution must also be prevented. Burning plastic, tyres, wood and other substances create enormous black smoke (Carbon monoxide) that damages/ pollutes the air. People and animals can then breathe this smoke in which creates illnesses such as Asthma and other respiratory diseases and even death from suffocation. Smoking cigarettes and driving cars create lots of pollution. One can stop smoking, burning things unnecessarily and plant trees and home gardens to reduce the pollution. Carbon monoxide creates nausea, headaches, dizziness, cramps, impaired vision, shortness of breath, unconsciousness and death.
Water pollution can be prevented by not throwing things(dirt, chemical waste, oil spillage from ships, nuclear waste, sewage) in rivers, lakes and seas. People think that if water covers 70% of the Earth's surface that they can treat the waters and seas with disrespect. Water must be cared for. Allah (SWT) Warns people in Surah Mulk, that if Allah (SWT) Takes away the water from a person/ people who can give it back? We know that people cannot create water. To look after the resources Allah (SWT) has given us, especially water, is a form of I-BAA-DAH (worship/praise/thankfulness to Allah (SWT). When we take Wudu(ablution/Abdas) we must must not open the tap in full and let the water run widely. Use a trickle of water from the tap to take Wudu – or rather use a one jug sparingly to take Wudu. The advice from the Holy Qur'an is to massage/rub the water around the ablution parts – a wet hand is enough.
Ways of preventing water pollution: Factories must have treatment plants that clean water before it is released into the sea. Waste can be contained and recycled instead of dropped in the sea. Use household cleaning agents that are not toxic/poisonous. Do not flush pads down the toilet. If you do spot litter in water take it out immediately. Farmers must use natural products as fertilizers. Re-use oils for other purposes like to paint it on metals to prevent rusting.

Land pollution can be stopped by using biodegradable packaging (materials that will break up and easily become part of the nutrients of the soil) and recycling plastics, glass, metals, cardboard and paper. This means that waste is re-worked to make new products again without throwing anything away. Organic (natural) pesticides (that kill insects) can be used instead of harmful poisons. Don't litter. Reclaim land by planting trees, grasses and food.

Conserving/saving energy means saving money (you pay less for electricity) and saving the environment (the less electricity you use, the less coal is burnt at the power station and the less carbon dioxide in the air). Some ways to save electricity: Have the thermostats of fridges, geysers and dryers turned lower. Replace old appliances. Front-load washing machines reduce electricity usage by 60-70%. Buy fan heaters not bar heaters. Replace air filters in vacuums and air-conditioners. Buy flourescent tubed lights. Seal windows and doors so that heat does not escape and cold does not come in. This reduces your need to put on heaters. Use walk, use public transport, bicycles, lift clubs to get to to school/work. Recycle, re-use and reduce your consumption (use) of junk foods which come in polystyrene containers.

The South African Government has taken steps to conserve its National wildlife treasures by creating national parks: Addo Elephant National Park, Agulas Natinal park, Augrabies National Park, Bontebok National Park, Camdeboo National Park, Golden Gate Highlands National Park; Karoo National Park, Kgalagadi Tranfrontier Park, Knysna National Lake, Kruger National Park, Mapunguwe National Park, Marakele National Park, Mokala National Park, Mountain Zebra National Park, Namaqua National Park, Table Mountain National Park, Tankwa Karoo National Park, Tsitsikamma National Park, West Cost National Park, Wilderness National Park, Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park. Now find the cities in which it is on your own.
Various governments have created world wide, international organisations to help with the conservation of the natural resources of the world. Such Organisations include: IPCC (Ontergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme); WWF (World Wildlife Fund); The WILD Foundation; Earth System Governnance Project; WPF (Wildlife Protection Foundation). All these organisations get their funding from individuals who value wildlife and the environment. These people also.

Plant invaders or alien plants. These are plants that are not from South Africa, but they are in South Africa. They grow fast and furious and in the process kill indigenous (home/ South African-original) plants. The Port Jackson Bush seen mostly in Strandfountein, was imported from Australia to “tame” the sand dunes. This shrub grew so fast that it invaded the land, killing other plants and taking over the soil where other home plants could have grown.

Alien/Invasive plants in South Africa include the following: wattles (reduce water flow to build dams), pines (wood) , gums, hakeas, rooikrans (bind sand + prevent loss of beaches), triffid weed (for wood), cats claw creeper (wood), tussock grass (cattle feeding), cacti (wild life feed), water hyacint. Although these plants were brought to South Africa for business purposes, it destroyed the home-based plants and disturbs some recreational activities.

South Africa has a wide range of plants and animals. Because it has such a wide variety of climates and it has on its Eastern side the warm ocean (Agulhas current) and on its western side the cold ocean (Benguela current). These currents influence the climate, weather, plant growth and animal types in South Africa.

Some of the animal and plant riches of South Africa include: The Big Five: Lion, Tiger, Elephant, Wildebeest, Buffalo. Other South African animals antelopes, giraffe, zebra, baboon, crocodile, African snakes – python, boomslang, cobra, rinkhals are known. Many frogs, fish of which the Snoek, Maasbanker, Catfish, and Galjoen are special to South Africa. Whale, dolphins and sharks are also known in South Africa. Many different insects and birds of prey (secretary bird) are also rich in South Africa. Coastal birds include Penguins, Cororants, Sea Gulls, Albatross and the Sandplovers. Small birds commonly seen – weavers, Cape Robin, Turtle Dove, Swifts(Swallows), Sparrow, rock pigeon, Cape Wagtail.

Animals can be divided into Vertebrates (having Spines: Fish(in water), Amphibians (on land and in water; Frogs) Reptiles (land, water, mountains: snake, crocodile), Birds (warm blooded flying, lay eggs); Mammals (warm blooded, babies born without shells); Arthropods ( insects - head, thorax, abdomen - e.g. flies; Arachnids:head, abdomen - e,g. Spider; Crustacea - e.g. crab; Molluscs - shells and tentacles - Mussels, Cuttlefish, snails, octopus, whelk. Invertebrates animals ( no central back bone) Diplopods: segmented - millipede; Chilopods - centipede

Known South African Plants include – marsh rose, Knysna forest, Fynbos, Camel thorn tree, flowers of Namaqualand, Baobab tree, proteas, arum lilies, Aloes, red-hot poker, iris, disa, Witmelkhout tree.

Plants are divided into Cone Bearing (e.g. pine tree, cycad)Flowering Plants (e.g. tomato, daisy); Monocotyledons ((one seed lobe, parallel veins, fibrous roots, clear nodes) e.g. Corn; Dicotyledons (Two seed lobes, network of veins, tap root system, not clear nodes) e.g. bean plant; Algae ( no roots, no stems, produce mucus, has chlorophyll, grows in wet places, found in the sea, thread like leaves, produce spores for reproduction); Ferns ( have roots, underground stem, surface leaves, thin long with spores(sporangia) underneath the leaves (sori), live in shady, wet areas in valleys)
Fungi - does not have chlorophyll, live off other plant's placing fine threads (mycelium) into the phloem (tubes that transport food for the plant) e.g. bread mould, mushrooms, yeast.
If 10 natural species lost in 15 years, then x natural species will be lost in 40 years:
15x = 10 x 40 .... x= 400/15 ...= 26,6 species will be lost in 40 years if the trend persists.
The National treasures of South Africa include: Protea, Boabab Tree, Secretary Bird, Table Mountain, abundant wildlife, earliest site of human kind – The Cradle of Mankind, Multi-million fossil sites, Sterkfontein Cave, Kruger National Park, Its mixed cultures – Rainbow Nation, Drakensberg Park, Magaliesberg, Its people's, its national heroes, Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, Cape Floristic Region, Succulent Karoo, Maputoland.

Important Science terms
1.Reproduction - new baby plants and animals are formed sexually (sperm and egg cells fuse to form a zygote that divides to form a new baby) or asexually ( a part of the body of the animal or plant divides to form a new baby)
2. Pollination - transfer of pollen (male cell) to the stigma ( female sex organ of flowers)
3. Germination - when pollen grows a pollen tube into the stigma and style of the flower to lead the male cell down into ovary (female cell holder of the ovum (female cell)
4. Fertilisation - when the male and female gametes (cells) fuse to form a first baby cell.
5. Mitosis - one cell dividing into two identical cells
6. Genes - the molecular code to reproduce identical cells with all the hereditary information in it
7. Ionisation - losing or gaining electrons to prepare for formation of new molecules.

Curriculum Related Poems:
ENERGY: When it's inside it wants to move,When it's released it can be Proved. Energy is Heat and can Defeat, Transfer from Here to There. It's a Force without Compare, It causes Changes in The Main. Without its Presence, All's in Vain.
SUSTAINABILITY: Resource Use without a Thought, Can Destroy what can't be Brought. Trees, Rivers, Animals, Are Precious Gifts not found in Malls. Save the Air and be so Fair, For Generations still to Bear, Conserve, Preserve And Find Alternatives.
GLOBAL WARMING: The Glut of Man for Money, Made Factories Dull the Sunny. Poison Gases Increase, Melting many a Freeze, Sea Rises People out of Houses, Animals Lose their Way, For Climates no-longer Stay.
THE CYCLES: A Cycle of Carbon, for Making Food. A cycle of Nitrogen, for Soil so GOod. While the Cycle of Water is there to Soothe. The Cycle of Life, from Birth to Death, Relies Entirely on Clear Breath. All Cycles Integrate, at specific Time and Date, All Designed by The One So Great, for All if Us to Appreciate.

People (Q49:13)
(Basic Integration of: Life Orientation, Social Science)
O! Mankind, We created you from a single pair of Male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (Not despise each other). Very the most humoured amongst you who will find nearness to Allah, are those who are righteous. Verily Allah (SWT) has full knowledge and is well acquainted with everything.
People are healthy when they eat a balanced diet (Fats -milk, carbohydrates -breads, Protein -meats, Vitamins-fruits, Minerals -vegetables, Fibre - cereals), exercises, learns, prays and are creative.
Common illnesses and remedies are the following;

Common Illnesses
Home Remedies
1. Acne
Dab lemon juice regularly on the pimples
2. Diarrhoea
Drink butter milk/ carrot juice
3. Fever
Drink lots of water, lie down, crush 10 grams of raisins and ginger-boil them in 200ml of water till it reduces to 50ml, strain and drink warm
4. Bronchitis
Turmeric powder- ½ teaspoon with
5. Head Lice
Wash hair with vinegar/apply coconut oil after shampoo/ add ten drops of tree oil in the shampoo/ rub listerine mouth wash on the head/ massage mayonnaise and comb the hair 2hrs later
6. Eczema
Apply/ olive oil/ 1 teaspoon of camphor + 1 teaspoon of sandle wood paste / nutmeg paste/ rub on vitamin E lotion
7. Hayfever
Add some honey to boiled minced grapefruit and lemon. 3X a day
8. Frequent Urination
Women-drink 1 teaspoon Magnesium Hydroxide Men- take herb Saw Palmetto
9. Headaches
The juice 3-4 slices of a lemon's juice in a cup of tea. Lemon crust paste applied to the forehead
10. Colds and flu
Honey water - warm water in microwave for 20 sec, dissolve one teaspoon of honey in it and drink warm

he above table comes from Traditional medicine. Other traditional/ folk /indigenous/ complimentary/ alternative medicines include: Chinese medicine, Islamic/Prophetic Medicine, light therapy, kinesiology/ Unani Tibb (based on Dr. Ibn Sina's Qanuun (“Canon”) 17 volumes of medical research. Reflexology, Acupuncture, African Medicine.

Conventional Medicine includes the use of anti-biotics (medicines, tablets) and surgery (cutting into the body under anesthetics). Lots of the practices and remedies of Conventional/ European medicine were based on the Qanuun of Ibn Sina whose name the Europeans changed to Avecinna and Averroes, to make him sound as if he was European not Arab/Muslim. Today conventional doctors openly use and are also qualified in traditional/alternative medicines and the medical practices are moving towards Holistic Medicine – where the body(conventional medicine)-mind(psychology)-soul(religious) aspects of a person are treated as a unit to try and help a patient recover from an illness.

All people fear cancer, alzheimer's, strokes and heart diseases. People mostly fear cancer, because it eats away at the body and mind. Of the most feared cancers is brain cancer, which eats away at the brain. We ask Allah (SWT) to protect us and our love ones from these terrible diseases and ask Him to Grant us health and strength to do good work for ourselves and others – Inshaa Allah
Most prevalent illnesses
  1. Africa -sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis)
  2. Iceland and America – heart attack
  3. Asia – depression
  4. Arabia – heat stroke
  5. South Africa – Tuberculosis (TB)
  6. Japan – strokes
  7. Europe – liver failures

A person who is healthy and wise, is drug free, have faith in Allah (SWT), has self-control, is positive and very creative. These are positive energies that link with the unseen world of angles and goodness, which helps that person to achieve his/her goals.

The decisions we make on a second by second basis, are the instruments of our success or failure for that minute, hour, day or life. Remember a bad decision can ruin your whole life. You cannot blame anyone for it. You can only blame yourself for choosing the bad instead of the good. Remember each person has an angle (ma-lai-ka) that will guide, advise and assist him / her. But satan and his unseen friend, the bad jinn, always whisper evil suggestions into the ears, hearts and minds of a person, while the angle advises good. Choose the right/good act and not the bad act. Goodness always breeds goodness, even when the person you do it to does not like you. Keep to the right path and you will succeed. Good decisions make you feel good, light and happy. Bad decisions makes you feel bad, heavy and unhappy. Remember it is your duty to make yourself happy. Others cannot make you happy or unhappy. It depends on how you absorb what people do to you. If the fight you, you must defend yourself so that they do not overpower you. That is your personal duty. But if they insult you, you are allowed to return the insult, but it is better for you to move away and find a positive way to respond. Do not let other people's evil make you evil. To do this you need knowledge, strength, wisdom and intellect. This does not come without learning, striving, practicing and testing your self in various situations. Practice makes perfect. You need to exercise, eat well, read good material, get into good company and serve people of various positions – rich, poor, healthy, sick, angry and good, strong and weak. To do this needs strength, commitment and courage. If you do not develop these you will become weak and people will exploit you. If you are not strong enough to fight back or respond well get help from people you trust and who do have strength, wisdom and courage.

To be happy and to progress continually, every person must ensure that he/she grow spiritually (know that Allah (SWT grants you life, food, shelter, cloths) physically (exercise, walk, eat healthily), intellectually (read, learn, discuss, research, explore) , emotionally ( control your anger, consider others, be openhearted), , socially(listen carefully when some speaks, have patience,communicate/speak well to people), professionally (have goals to certificate yourself by continually studying formally and informally, be task orientated, committed and never to procrastinate ( putting things off what can be done immediately)
Make changes:
  1. Physical changes: Exercise, walk, eat healthily,
  2. Intellectual changes : read, learn, discuss, research, explore,
  3. Emotional changes : control your anger, consider others, be openhearted
  4. Social changes :listen carefully when someone speaks, have patience, communicate/speak well to people),
  5. Professional changes: have goals to certificate(get certificates) yourself by continually studying formally(in schools) and informally (at home), be task orientated, committed and never to procrastinate ( putting things off what can be done immediately)
  6. Financial changes: Save your money, don't overspend, get extra jobs, make things to sell, plan your financial future
  7. Spiritual changes: salaah on time and everyday, make thikr(remember and praise Allah (SWT), attend spiritual meetings, lectures, read Qur'an, read Ghadeeth, make du'aa (ask Allah SWT for what you wish for), give charity (sadaqa) – help people in any way you can without expecting a reward.

Comparing Traditional Lifestyles and Modern Lifestyles (compare the numbers)

Traditional Lifestyle
1. handmade things
2. walked a lot, used bicycles
3. had home gardens
4. depended on family and neighbours for support
5. families were bigger
6. wear old clothes
7. no cell-phones, computers, TV
8. Visited friends and family a lot at their homes
9. played records
10. went to the movies
11. home cooking

Modern Lifestyles
1. factory bought things
2. use cars, motor cycles
3. buy at supermarkets
4. depend on the bank to give loans
5. few children, sometimes one/two child/ren
6. wants brand-name clothes
7. Cell-phones, Computers, TV
8. Connect through social networks, meet in malls, movies, beaches – outside homes
9. Mp3's
10. Watch DVD's and cinema channels on computers linked to TV's at home and friends homes
11. eating-out in restaurants

Medical Breakthroughs for the 2000's

Scientists Use Cloning to Create Stem Cells, A First-Ever Malaria Vaccine, HIV Treatment As Prevention, The Food Pyramid Becomes a Plate, Body Parts Grown in the Lab, The Curious Link Between Bacteria and Colon Cancer, A Death Risk Predictor? You're as Old as Your Spit Says You Are,Dogs That Can Sniff Out Lung Cancer, Brain cells from cockroaches and locusts to fight resistant human infections and diseases.

Medical doctors give patients antibiotics. These are tablets or medicine that are poisons that attack the bacteria(one celled organisms ) that enter the body and live off the human's body cells that causes the illness. Antibiotics do not work on viruses, because they are microscopic foreign substances that enter the body and enter a cell nucleus and live off it.

Keeping body healthy
Wash your hands regularly – taking wudu (ablution for Muslims prayers) is an excellent way to keep the body from attack of bacteria and viruses. Eating healthy balanced meals, exercise and drink regularly a teaspoon of dissolved honey in a ¼ glass of warm water as the first drink of the day.Do not pollute your mind and body with smoking, drugs or overeating.

Keeping the soul(inner-self) healthy
Religion or faith is the one activity which keeps people's inner-self healthy. There are many religions but one faith. All people believe there is a God (A Super Power) that controls everything and everyone. Some people try to bring God to their level of understanding by claiming God has a son / daughter / sisters / saints through which they can contact God. Muslims do not belief that God has children .They believe that God(Allah, The Exalted) can be directly spoken to and prayed to.

Different Religions
The following different types of religions are worldwide: Baha'ism(follow Bahaa-ul-laah); Christianity (Believe Jesus is God); Islam( Believe in Allah, The Exalted, as the only God – follow Prophet Mughammad (Pbuh)), Judaism ( believe in One God, follow Prophet Musa ('AS)); Rustafari (Call God Jah(Jesus), worshiped Haile Selassie, Their King as god in human form) Mandaiyyah/Sabian (follow specific disciples especially John the Baptist); Buddhism ( Believe in Buddha as god) Hinduism (Believe in the presence of a universal soul Brahman therefore they have many gods and goddesses for different and also believe in reincarnation that a dead person's soul comes back into another body), Shintoism (they believe that spirits live in everything and these are the ways to the gods)

Different Cultures
The religions / the beliefs of people influence the way the people of that religion live, eat, sleep, drink, work, dress, the festivals they have, the dances, songs, and educational systems, the names they give their children, they way they marry and the way they celebrate birthdays, deaths, anniversaries, the colours and designs they love for their materials, clothing and architecture/ buildings and their homes. Some people believe in no god but their political/ economic beliefs drive their lifestyle/ culture.

Keeping a Healthy Mind
Think good and positive things. Do not gossip and backbite. Do not be prejudice, bias or racist. Meditate, Make Thikr (Remeber The Creator). Be creative. Learn and Study. Read. Be informed. Keep company with good and wholesome people.

Best Communication
Speak clearly and be precise, do not waffle (talk nonsense/ beat around the bush). Be courteous(polite). Respect everyone, including those younger than yourself. Do not use foul language. Listen carefully what is being said to you and think clearly what you want to say. Remember, a good Muslim is one who does not hurt another person in word or deed (by what he/she says or do) except when the Muslim is being attacked verbally or physically - the Muslim must defend him/herself - but in the best possible way that is humanly acceptable - never be the aggressor - starting bad things or doing worse than what another person does to you. Good Communication is the means/ helps you make good friends, have good family relationships and allows you to get and keep a job. When speaking professionally, always remember to address your managers, bosses, colleagues and those who has lesser positions than yourself, with goodness, care and sensitivity as you would speak to your family members. Remember your parents must always be spoken to with dignity and respect, even if they are difficult and nagging.
Writing and Acting to Communicate
People communicate by speaking to each other, listening to each other, body language (making signs/ gestures/ facial expressions), by telephone (landline), cell phones, sms, mms, gtalk, mxit, email, Skype, blogs, letters, postcards, greeting cards, sending flowers/ presents, inviting someone for tea/ supper/ for an event - like a wedding/ engagement/ birthday party/ thikr (Divine Remembrance), through Mass Media - newspapers, TV programs, documentaries, films, theatre, stand-up comedy, pamphlets, advertising, promotions, interviews, youtube, magazines, brochures, running or presenting workshops/ seminars/ symposiums (formal discussions), have social meetings, sporting events/ activities, going on outings
Reasons for communicating:
1) to share ideas
2) to socialise (to get to know about people, their interests, habits, problems, achievements, happy and sad moments)
3) to inform one another about something
4) To sell items/ services
5) to mobilise (move) people to do something for or against others
6) to feel valued/ good about the self/ or to make the self and others happy
7) to help one another
8) to build friendships
9) keep family ties
10) to gain support from others
11) to meet new people
12) to learn new things/ skills

Common Social Problems in a faithless society (where faith in the Presence of God is ignored)
1. Corruption, human rights violations, illiteracy, poverty, political unrest, T.B.(socio-economic disease - caused by overcrowded living conditions and a lack of good food and clean air), wars, racism - these originate from Unfair  Government/ Political Practices 
2. Stress, drug addiction, depression, teenage suicides, prostitution, HIV and AIDS, Road Accidents, molestation, homosexuality, obesity, alcoholism, preventable illnesses - these originate from  Wrong Personal Choices
3. Crimes, stereotyping (thinking that all people of a certain kind are bad, because some are bad), Prejudice ( only liking some), abortion - these social problems stem from Low Ethical/ Moral Standards
4. Male Aggression causes the following social problems - Chauvinism ( belief that males are better than women and that they have special rights), family abuse, domestic violence, animal cruelty, rape, teenage pregnancies, gangsterism.
5. Unfair, exploitive Economic Practices (Business dealings) cause human suffering due to pollution, unemployment, overpopulation, poverty, Natural disasters (causes the crashing of businesses which in turn causes job losses), urbanization, squatting, outsourcing (cutting permanent jobs to contract other workers), downsizing (cutting staff to keep profits high), privatization ( state selling their businesses to private owners - this normally results in people being sacked), mergers ( when companies combine they retrench some workers to prevent duplication), globalization (open, cheaper international goods cause a slump in the need for more expensive local produce) Xenophobia ( people killing foreigners for fear of them taking away their chances of a job), Deforestation ( cutting down forests to clear land for single produce farms/ housing/ golf courses - this destroys natural habitats and  drive animals and insects out of their natural homes - this disturbs the ecosystem which in turn reduces the growth of fruits and vegetables that depend on insect and animal pollination ( transfer of male pollen grains to female stigma's so that fruits and veggies can grow), Poor resource use (wasting electricity, water etc to live a more modern mechanical life).

Unfair economic practices and the want to control more land and people is the start of Cape Town and South Africa falling under the rule of the Europeans (Portuguese, Dutch and British).

Brief South African Land and History
South Africa has the cold Benguela Current of the Atlantic Ocean flowing along its western coast and the Warm Agulhas Current of the Indian Ocean along its Eastern Coast. These affect the climate and coastal conditions of South Africa. It also brings an array (vast number) of different sea and land animals, insects and plant life to the seas and lands of South Africa, South Africa is rich in minerals, vegetables, fruits and animal life. Cape Point is the place where the two oceans meet. The coastline of South Africa is very rugged (rocky) and its winds are fierce. That is why many ships sunk at the Cape of Storms, bringing to the South African Shores many deaths and treasures that lie deep under the oceans. South Africa has a variety of weathers - from the deserts of the Kalahari to the lush growth of trees and plants on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal (Subtropical). South Africa has the following Climatic regions - Grasslands, Fynbos, Succulent Karoo, Nama-Karoo, Deserts, Forests and Savanna . South Africa only has an average rainfall of 492 mm, she thus has large Dams to feed its daily water needs.
The Cape's Mediterranean Climate made it suitable to start a refreshment halfway station for the Portuguese and Dutch ships which sailed to India for spices and other trade items. The Dutch East India Company sent Jan van Riebeeck, a Dutch prisoner, to build the Castle of Good Hope ( Today it can still be seen opposite the  Cape Town Train Station) in 1652. They established a farm Schotchekloof to grow the necessary fruits and vegetables and keep the live stock for fresh meat and food for the passing ships. The Europeans met with the indigenous San, Khoi, Xhosa, Zulu and other non-white tribes. The indigenous peoples were hunter gatherers and cattle farmers and only had spears and bows and arrows to defend themselves. The Dutch and British had guns and canons and they soon took the lands from the indigenous people by 1879 and made them slaves. The Europeans also imported slaves to come and work in Cape Town as farm hands and house servants. The Dutch also sent political prisoners to Cape Town far away from their families and people in their native countries in  Malaysia, Indonesia, Malaka, Borneo etc. Some of these people were Muslims who were prevented from praying in public.
Slave trade was stopped by the British Government in 1838. Many slaves stayed on to work for their ex-slave masters after they were set free. As years went by the Muslims proved to be the better workers and craftsmen and women. South Africa became a world famous place to come to when Diamonds was discovered in 1866 and Gold in 1871. The Dutch conquered the indigenous peoples, the British conquered the Dutch (1902) - who had moved to the Northern South Africa in The Great Trek. Although the British gave governance of South Africa to the Boers, the British made sure that they established their Mining Businesses and Educational strong hold in South Africa. Eventually the Dutch, who became the Boers/Afrikaners, were given their independence from the British to govern (control) South Africa (1910) . The National Party (NP) eventually won the vote to control South Africa in 1948. Hendrik Verwoerd instituted Apartheid which separated people of color, each to their own areas (Group Areas Act) and preventing them from inter-marrying (Immorality Act). Only whites could vote. Resistance started with the ANC (African National Congress) in 1952 (defiance champaign against the Pass Laws - Blacks had to have a pass to walk around in the city, if they did not have it , they were jailed). the ANC started the armed struggle against the Boers/ Afrikaners. Nelson Mandela and the executive members of the ANC were sentenced to life in prison for organizing resistance against Apartheid. Mandela and other political prisoners are locked up on Robin Island.
After 27 years in jail, the then prime minister F.W De Klerk released Mandela from prison in 1990. The first democratic election was held in South Africa in 1994. The ANC won the first South African Democratic elections and Nelson Mandela became the first Black president of South Africa. South Africa is now ruled by the ANC and other smaller political parties. Apartheid was abolished and the New Constitution of South Africa was adopted which gives all people equal status before the law and outlaws discrimination against race, creed, color or religion. South Africa became the first freedom of speech country without a war - The Miracle of South Africa. Many Muslim Kings and Leaders from Muslim countries helped the ANC fight Apartheid in South Africa.   South Africa hosted its first Soccer World Cup in 2010 and showed that South Africans were excellent people. Tourism and Investments have increased in South Africa since Apartheid was abolished and human rights of people were given a chance to be protected by the Constitutional Court of South Africa - the Highest Authority of Law in the Country.
Heritage Value of Bo-Kaap

Bo-Kaap should become a national heritage site and its buildings and Islamic Culture protected from foreign influence and occupation. Bo-Kaap has 10 mosques and a picturesque area, because it houses the oldest Dutch, British and Portuguese architecture. To conserve or look after a culture and an area is to create an interest and appreciation of the past which create value for the present generations. With disrespect for heritage, people values deteriorate, people's lifestyle becomes individualistic empty. When there is nothing to respect of the past, people start exploiting people and property for selfish reasons. This breaks down a community spirit which in-turn creates social problems of crime, broken families, unemployment and general disrespect.

World History
1.Germany's (Then known as the Weimar Republic) take over/ occupation of of countries in Europe caused other countries(Allies) to attack Germany together and defeat them.
2. Germany was forced (by The Treaty of Versailles-1919) to pay for the damages of war they caused, give back the lands they conquered, and give up it air force and reduce the size of their army. Germany thus had huge war debt. France and Belgium took over Germany's coal and steel plants in retaliation (fight back) against Germany for not paying France and Belgium their money. This angered the Germans and they refused to work (went on strike), which caused unemployment and wide spread suffering in Germany.
3. Adolf Hitler was a political activist, who opposed the Old Germany's Weiner Republic. He was arrested. Put in Jail in 1923 where he Wrote a book Mein Kampf (My Struggle). It It he spelt out his plan for Germany - only for a pure German Ayran race, Nationalism(being proud of your country). He was released in 1924.
4. America loaned Germany money, but in 1929 the Wall street stock exchange crashed and the whole world fell into economic depression (no-jobs, no products, hunger). America wanted their money back from Germany within 90 days - an impossibility.
5. The Nazi political party offered Germans a new united powerful German Nation through posters, rallies, radio programs and films. The German people needed new hope and purpose. Thousands of Germans supported the Nazi Party. The then president of Germany, Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler of The Chancellor of the coalition government (combination of different political parties)
6. In March 1933 the Nazi Party won the majority votes. Hitler became Germany's leader. The Nazis promulgated (established) the Enabling Act which gave Hitler Dictatorial Powers(absolute/every power to do what he likes). He Instituted: Control of the Press, abolishing all political parties,prohibiting unions, imprisoning other leaders and killed (the Night of the Long Knives) by the SS(Schutzstaffel) and the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizie/secret police). Concentration Camps were created to silence opposition. Hitler proclaimed himself Fuhrer and the army had to swear an oath of loyalty to him - the face straight hand, 45degree frontal solute.
7. Hitler promulgated the Nuremburg Laws (1933) which discriminated against non-Germans especially Jews (anti-Semitism - a racist law) If one parents is German and the other Jew they family was registered as a Cross-Bread/ Mixed/ Mischling. Verwoerd the Apartheid mastermind took his guidance from Hitler's Nazi Party to create the National Party in South Africa Hitler aimed to create a Master Race of Germans that must be blond, blue-eyed, muscular and white. At every annual Nuremburg Rally, Nazism and anti-Semitism were strengthened as ideologies that are must be upheld to strengthen the desire for the German Master Race. Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Gypsies(Roma), Homosexuals, Slavs, Blacks and Disabled people were persecuted. During World War II, Hitler established 22 Extermination/ Concentration Camps in which the Nazi's killed 11 million non-German people by using Firing Squads, Crematoria (burning people in chambers), Gas Chambers, starving or torture. The most notorious (famous for evil) Camps were Dachau, Treblinka, Auschwitz and Buchenwald. These large scale killings of Jews and other non-Germans was called The Holocaust or Genocide.

Core Concepts in Social Science

1. Measuring Human Development Indicators ( Environmental Statistics/Numbers (urban-rual population numbers; Sustainable use of Resources, Carbon Emissions); Economic Stats ( Gross Domestic Product (GDP-total production of goods and services of a country); Per Capita Income-Average income of a person in a country, Technological Advancement): Social Stats ( Diet (what people eat), Health Care (hospitals and medical services), Housing, Human Rights- freedom of people to express themselves politically, Literacy and Maths Skills, Life Expectancy - average lifespan of people in the country)
2. Human Development Index (HDI); This is a number given between 0-1, to describe the standard of living of people in a country. 1st world countries have a HDI of close to 1, which indicates High percentage healthcare and longer lifespan, at least 12 year schooling and high individual income(per capita). Countries with a HDI=0,2 (far from 1) experiences the opposite
3. Urbanisation - people moving to the city from farmlands(Rural Areas)
4. Industrialisation-increase in amount of factories
5. Colonialism - Europeans conquering African, Western, Eastern Countries and striping them from resources (mineral and human (through slavery and cheap labour) to build Europe
6. Neo-Colonialism - when countries voluntarily continue to trade with Western Countries in a way that makes them dependent on European countries for trade/business - this has just changed after the European, USA and UK is struggling with Debt and the BRICKS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Korea, South Africa) countries are trading more effectively because of their bigger populations and more advanced technologies making them less dependent on the Western-European countries. 
7. Infant Mortality Rate - number of babies per thousand that die
8. Displacement - forced to move from where you lived 
9. Sanctions- refusing to trade with another country
10.Colony - a country controlled by a more powerful country
11. Independent - self-sufficient, economically strong country
12. Political instability - citizens fighting each other (civil war)
13. Coup - a country's government is overthrown by the military/ resistance group
14. Limestone - rock that is easily broken down/eroded by acidic water
15. Oxidation - combining with oxygen
16. Weathering - physical weathering(rocks break down through wind, sand storms and water erosion) Chemical weathering ( acid eats away rock) Biological weathering ( animals break down rocks, ground soil)
17. Fossil Fuels - coal, gas, oil - formed from dead animals and plants under soil/ground pressure
18. Sediment - solid land material that sinks to the bottom
19. Abrade - rubbing away by friction (two bodies against each other)
20 attrition - when rocks get smaller by knocking against each other.
21. effluence - liquid  waste from sewage
22. Unwise use of Resources - over grazing, over-ploughing, overfishing, overstocking (trampling of grass by too many animals walking in a small area)
23. carrying capacity - enough land and resources available for a community of animals and people
24. degradation- degrading/ loss of valuable resources
25. desertification - vegetation dies and deserts form 
26. Carbon footprint - how much pollution caused
27. Free-range - animals are not kept in cages on the farm, they are allowed to roam freely.
28. Monocultures - only one crop is grown.
29. pastoralists - animal farmers/ husbandry
30.Transgenic - genetically modified foods (identifying strong genes in plants and animals and then transplanting into the nucleus of other plants or animals so that a stronger, more resistant, higher quality, more produce can be yielded (got/born/grow)
31. Sustainable Farming - crop rotation, composted crop waste and animal manure, mulching soil, pest resistant crop, use useful predators, increase genetic diversity (different strands of the same plant), careful use of water and other resources.

Curriculum Related Poems
ICS MAXIM FOR EVERY MOMENT: Help One another, to have the Strength and Wisdom of The Elephant, with the Control of The Lion, Through the Speed and Agility of The Cheetah, While Camouflaged like The Tiger, To be as Huge, Caring, Cuddly, Secure and Powerful like The Bear, Topped by the Healing Qualities of The Camel.
STAYING HEALTHY: A Balance Diet Feeds Body and Mind, Makes Good Sense, to be Fine. Lots of Fruits and Vegetables, Give Needed Growth and Minerals. Some Fats and Carbohydrates for Energy and Needed Weight. Water is Essential, For Transport of Solubles.
SA HISTORY: The Khoi were Here, The Dutch They Feared, Who later Shot their Spear. The English Broke the Dutch Control, and Later Gave the Boers the Role. Apartheid Fears by All Dark-Skinned, Turned to Fighters Highly Skilled. Democracy in '94, United All, Not Seen Before.
CHILDREN'S RIGHTS: They have a Voice, That We Must Hear, For Safety, Care and Nurture. Education is Their Right. For Freedom did they Fight. Association is now Free. Apartheid made many Flee. Refuse Abuse, There's no Excuse for Adults to be Fair.

Languages (Q30:22)
(Basic Integration of: English, Arabic, Drama, Afrikaans)
And among His Miracles is the Creation of the heavens and the earth and the variations in your languages and your colours; verily in that are Signs/ Marvels for those who know. 

Language is the means of communication. One must speak / write properly so that others can understand you and respond in a manner which will make things better, Bad communication skills can cause problems - even wars. The use of grammatical marks / punctuation is very important/ critical. A comma on the wrong spot can change the meaning of a sentence and cause a person to misinterpret what you want to say. It is important to read and write as often as possible so that you become skilled in communication. People who write well influence people's behaviour, thought processes, actions and even lifestyle. Good communicators often become leaders of societies, tribes, communities and nations. The Prophets (Peace be upon them) were excellent communicators. Good communicators help people in various/ different ways.
Ways to improve your expressions that would allow people to listen of read what you have to say:
1. It is considered that...
2. Research has shown that...
3. I am under the impression that...
4. What could be considered is/ are...
5. It is my opinion that...
6. There are different approaches to this, but I prefer to see it as...
7. Considering what I have experienced, it seems that...
8. Some people have the view that ...., but I am confident that...
9. It is possible that what is being stated is true, but ...
10. I have some reservations to what was said, because...
11. I can believe that what he/she said holds true in some cases, but what can be considered is/are..
12. I am keeping an open mind on what you are saying, but there are issues I would like to differ with, because...
The above introductions to sentences allow the listener or reader time to consider what you are about to say, because he/she is aware that you have taken other people's views into consideration. People do not like a person to be dogmatic (thinking that only he/she is right and that no-one else's opinion matters. Dogmatic people are often irrational, oppressive, prejudice, bias and often demanding. One's language usage exposes ones inner-self and characteristics. It is thus important to try and be more open to other people's views, expressions and opinions. This will allow one to become objective, informed and wise in dealing with people and influencing others positively. Language is about persuasion - the art of convincing someone to follow you in the things of good that you do or in making people aware about the dangers of things and situations. Language is the means to success in this world and the next.
The first message from Allah (The Exalted), was IQRA "to Read, Recite, Peruse, Reckon, Investigate, Examine, Explore, study thoroughly" - This is the first instruction for mankind. It spells progress, development, growth, understanding, consideration, depth, reflection, research, discoveries and social standing/ position. The people who read, recite, investigate and explore are the ones who become good leaders of societies, countries and the world. This is because they value language, employ their skills and learn about Nature, People, Trade, Calculations, Construction and the Micro - and Telescopic worlds. They can help people, because they seriously read with the purpose (NIYYAH) of knowing, to be of use to themselves and others. Their leadership positions are given to them as a Gift from Allah (The Exalted, for the efforts they have made to learn through reading/ studying works in their own language and they even try and study foreign languages to understand the wisdom of other people. The language that is the most sophisticated, advance, deep and comprehensive is Arabic - especially Qur'anic Arabic. This is evidenced by the ability of young and old to memorize the whole Qur'an's 6000+Ayaat (miraculous sentences) and the deep and comprehensive meaning patterns hidden in each Arabic word.
The Value of the Arabic Language
Arabic has a Holistic Philosophical and Psychological Value. One word's root letters can lead one into understanding the phenomenon one needs to understand. Arabic is a very rich language and the Arabs use to pride themselves on their ability writing and oratory abilities before the coming of The Qur'an. It was this skill of poetic and oratory excellence as a nation which made them realize that The Qur'anic Arabic is Divine, because their most prised orators and linguists of their time (when The Qur'an was Revealed) could not match the beauty, eloquence and holistic sophistication, yet simple structure of its Message. Here is one example:

The verb 'A-QA-LA has, amongst other, the following meanings:
  1. To Hobble (tie a camel's legs) a camel
  2. To Arrest, detain, confine
  3. To wrestle
  4. To be reasonable
  5. To realise
  6. to be intelligent
  7. to be concious
  8. to comprehend
  9. to understand
  10. to be sensible
  11. to become wise
  12. to be fair/ judicious.
When all these meanings are holistically reflected upon in the context of The Holy Qur'an and the Practice(SUNNAH) of the Prophet Mughammad (Peace be upon him), the following meaning of 'A-QA-LA can be explained as – The effort (Wrestling) of a person to control/contain (Arrest) his/ her Lower-self (sex, hunger, financial and racial exploitation) by Praying 5 times a day, Fasting during the month of Ramadaan, Believing That ALLAH (The Exalted) Is The All Present GOD, giving regular payments to the poor (Zakah), performing the Ghaj with all nations and generally to control his/her lust (only expressing it in Marriage) and all lower tendencies of selfishness, then he/she will understand life better, be conscious of the intricacies and beauties of life, act sensibly and become intelligent and wise. A person's Uncontrolled lower-self urges destroys his/her intelligence and wisdom.
How to intelligently improve your expressions in English
Some English extracts that can help you improve your written and spoken language in expressing yourself:
1. ..didn't appreciate the implications ( did not realize what will happen)
2. ...It's a vicious circle..(one wrong follows another)
3. ... his valiant fight was flagging..(he was giving up hope)
4. ...tucked away in the corner of the room.. (in the corner)
5. ... looking towards the future, it seems.. ( in time to come)
6. preserve the ability to acquire knowledge ( to allow people to learn)
7. Initially the relationship was conducted in.. ( at first they met at)
8. An imperative aspect of the matter is... ( The important thing of it )
9. the room was plastered with photographs.. (full of)
10. was really a vivid and colourful place (there were lots of colours)
11.. it daringly featured ... (without fear it showed)
12. amidst such a dense concentration of talent ( among many talented people)
13. .. my erroneous predictions (my wrong thoughts)
14. In a nerve-wracking run-up (nail-biting competition)
15. It was intimidating (it was scary)
16. it will be watched by the civilized world (people who are good)
17. such restraint is no longer necessary (being more free than before)
18. with hindsight (reconsidering/ looking back)
19. found a compromise (an agreement between different options that appeals to all)
20. an immediate and lasting impression ( a lasting influence)
The efforts made to improve ones language takes a person places that would not have been possible if one continues using the same old basic words and sentences. It will retard your expression of experiences and the people you can meet and communicate with. Languages are the roads that expand your world.

Parts of Speech:
1. Nouns - Names of things, people and places
2. Adjectives - describing nouns
3. Adverbs - words that indicate time, place, manner
4. Pronouns - words that replace a proper noun
5. Conjunctions - words that join simple sentences
6. Interjections - words that express surprised feelings
7. Verbs - words of action

Figures of Speech
1. Alliteration - repetitive words with the same front sounds
2. Assonance - repetitive vowel sounds
3. Simile - when the words "as" or "like" is used
4. Metaphor - when an animal or thing's name is used directly in place our a human being
5. Onomatopoeia - words formed from real sounds heard
6. Personification - when a natural, non-human thing is given a human quality/ability
7. Euphemism - a soft way of saying something harsh/ disturbing/ critical
8. Hyperbole - exaggerated way of expressing something
9. Innuendo - to hint towards a negative using a positive quality
10. Irony - using a word in its opposite meaning to create an effect
11. Satire - making fun of a serious matter
12. Pun - comic effect of the double meaning of a word
13. Paradox - words of opposite meanings used to get across the reality of life
14. imagery - words used to create a picture/ scene
15. Parody - humourous pretense, caricature
16. Rhyme - end words/sounds are the same

How to answer Questions dealing with text: Make a Point of identifying the following writing styles and quote some parts of the text to substantiate (prove) your point why you say so:Remember you can also comment of the future of speech that has been used in the text - again do not forget to quote from the text to prove your point (substantiate). You may state that the words evoke/ stimulate/ express...
1. Colloquialism - when popular groups of words are used
2. Stereotypical - making general statement, as if everything/ one is the same
3. Racism - skin color reference in a derogatory way (bad)
4. Bias - siding with a group at the expense of another(one-sided)
5. Disconcerting - making statements that make people feel uneasy/ uncomfortable
6. Cynical - mocking serious life issues
7. Dismissive - outright rejection
8. Prejudicial - outright show of favour for a group against another
9. emotion - appealing to feelings
10. hostile - evoking anger, aggression, fight
11. absurd - totally against values/ normal social acceptance
12. egotistical- self-praise
13. humorous- funny
14. unsympathetic - does not really care about the feelings of others
15. anxiousness - evoke fear
16. sensual - sexually related
17. confusion - confuses the reader
18. informal - away from the formalism expected of writing
19. Formal - very structured
20 conformist - applying rigid ways, following rules

How characters in books, plays, films can be explained:
Egotistical, submissive, humble, expressive, pensive (thinking), focused, introvert, extrovert, happy, sad, melancholy, insecure, perverse (uncontrolled sexual desire), humorous,  confident, quiet, talkative, ecstatic (overly happy), anxious (always fearful), rebellious, complaining, hostile (likes to fight), argumentative, ridiculous, confused, sensual (attracts attention), insecure, pitiful, authoritative (commands respect through up-righteous behaviour), appealing (attractive), persuasive (ability to encourage), disoriented (confused), prejudice, racist, expressive ( speaks well), loud, loving, aggressive. opinionated, considerate, courteous...etc.

The Above allows you to critique a book, film, character, play, TV production, article etc., and to start writing your own text using the above as guidelines to create you own stories and characters.

Remember when dealing with Afrikaans, it is a good start to translate all the above into Afrikaans - sections at a time. This will help you deal with critique in Afrikaans as well. Remember many technical terms of English ahem been translated into Afrikaans. The Big difference between Afrikaans and English is that the verb(werkwoord) in an Afrikaans sentence is always placed at the back. In English it is usually in the middle and in Arabic it is often the first word of the sentence.

Curriculum Related Poems
THE POWER OF LANGUAGE: Read, Peruse, Study and Teach, This is the First Instruction for Each. Poetry, Prose Stood for a While, was Totally Deposed by Qur'anic Style. Arabic, The Language to Refelct, Develops Acute Intellect. Engilsh sentence Broadens Deep, Through Arabic Roots, Interchanging Leaps. Word, Phrase, Sentence, Feat, Bring Messages from Many Seat. Learn to Earn and do not Spurn, The Reading Power of Constant Churn. Language Builds People's Pride, Who Stand Firm and do not Hide.
AFRIKAANS: Die Taal is Jonk. Het nou Geen Pronk, Want Staat was te Gehok. Geen Wetenskap het nog Ontbloot, want Engels het als Gesloot. Die Bo-Kaap Mulims het dit Begin, so Het Dr. Achmat Davids 'n Graad Gewin. Met Arabiese Letters in Kaaps Geklank, het Afrikaans veel toe te Dank. Waar Gaan dit Wees soos jare Sleep? Want Engels is in Elk Meet.

TRADE (Q4:29)
(Basic Integration of: Economic Management Sciences, Economics)
O! You who have faith in God (EE-MAAN); Do not eat up your property amongst yourselves in vanities ( to impress others); but let there be amongst you Traffic and Trade by mutual good-will: Nor Kill or destroy yourselves ( war, plundering other countries and suicides if you have less): for verily Allah(SWT) is always Merciful to you.

Trade means making business. The main aim of a business owner (Entrepreneur) is to make profit (when the money received from customers (Sales) is more than the money paid out for expenses – to run the business – like salaries, water, electricity etc). The Money the owner starts a business with is called The Capital. Assets are everything the business owns. Liabilities are every cent the business owes the bank/ creditors (those people from whom the business bought on credit (getting the goods immediately, but paying for it at a latter date).

There are Trading businesses/ enterprises ( Pick 'n Pay, Woolworths, Tuckshops, Shoe Shops, etc – businesses that sell finished or manufactured goods) and Service Enterprises ( business people that sell a service for money – barbers, plumbers, doctors lawyers etc).

Every business feeds a specific market. A market is the place where buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods and service for money. There are different types of markets – Fish markets, Fruit and Vegetable/ Produce markets, Money / financial/ Markets (where currencies are wanted and sold), Cattle Markets/ Technology Markets, Stock market (Where Shares are bought/ sold). Real Estate Market (Where Property (houses/ buildings are bought/sold). A market is actually the demand/want for something by a customer/ consumer and the Supply/ Producer of the thing the customer wants.

Remember Consumers (households/families/ people), Producers(Businesses/Suppliers) are connected through the market (place where suppliers offer what customers want). The market can be a physical place or be in cyber-space (computers/ internet). This customer pays the money and the business/supplier gives/delivers the goods/item – this is the basic economic cycle. When the state (government) comes into the cycle then they will tax the business and the customer and in return the state will give/ supply water, electricity, roads and land for the business to function. This cycle of events between the state, business and consumer providing goods, services and money the called the Economic Cycle. A closed economic cycle excludes exports, while an open Economic Cycle includes Foreign Trade (Exports and Imports – selling and buying goods and services from other countries.
People Needs (Water, Energy, Food, Shelter, Clothing, Waste Removal, Transport, Health) and People Wants (TV, Car, Cellphone, Computer, Entertainment, etc.) drives the business world (Economy) of a country and the world. Governments collect Taxes (Revenue) through the Receiver of Revenue from business profits and individuals salaries and wages. The Taxes are used to pay for Government Expenses (Education, Health Care, Pensions, Child Support, Police and Army, Infrastructure (Roads, Airports, Railways, Bridges, Schools, State Offices, Housing, Electricity, Water, Power Stations, Sanitation, Sport and Recreation, Road Works etc.)

Balance of Payments this is an attempt be the state to ensure that there is a balance between the money leaving the country due to payments for Imports of Products and Services and the Money coming into the country through receipts from Exports of Goods and Services. When the Country Exports more than it imports it Balance of Payments a positive – good, because more money is entering the country than money leaving the country. The more the country produce and exports the more jobs are created in the country and the better the living conditions/standard of its people.

All business dealings (transactions) must be recorded so that the state can properly tax the people of the country and so that business know when they are progressing or retarding (going backwards). The system of recording all transactions is called Bookkeeping and the skill to analyse the profitability and success rate of a business is called Accounting and Financial Management.
Source Documents (Receipts for Moneys received; Cheques for moneys paid; Invoices for credit(later payment) transactions; Petty Cash vouchers for small cash payments – postage, teas etc.; Debit Notes for goods returned, Credit Notes for returned goods from customers) are written uo into Books of Prime (First) Entry ; Cash Receipts Journal (CRJ) for all Receipts; Cash Payments Journal (CPJ) for all cheque payments; Petty Cash Journal (PCJ) for Petty Cash Vouchers; Debtors' Journal (DJ) for Invoices issued for Credit Sales; Creditors' Journal (CJ) for items brought by the business of Credit.

When the journals are totaled, the totals are posted to the General Ledger. The General Ledger has two sides – Debit and Credit Side. All Asset Accounts (What the Business Owns) and Expense Accounts (Payments fro services) are Debited when it increases and credit when it decreases. All Liability Accounts(What the business owes) and Income Accounts (Money Received) are Credited when it Increases and Debited when it decreases.

From the General Ledger all account balances are summarised / listed in the Trial Balance which must balance – have the same totals in the debit and credit total columns automatically. Because for every debit bookkeepers must make an equal opposite credit entry (Double Entry System of Bookkeeping and Accounting). From the Trial Balance the Income Statement is drawn up. The Income statement add the Sales, subtract the Cost of Sales to get the Gross Profit. The Other Income such as Rent Received and commission Received is added to get the Total Income for the year. All the Expenses are deducted from the Total Income to arrive at the Net Profit. The Net Profit is added to The Capital because it is the earnings of the owner of the business. He is the Entrepreneur and his earnings/ income is Profit.

Entrepreneurship, Capital, Labour and Land are factors of production. These are the 4 main ingredients to start and sustain a business. The Income/ remuneration for labour is Wages and Salaries; The Remuneration for Capital is Interest (Gharaam in Islam), The Remuneration for Land is Rent. The remuneration for Entrepreneurship – the skills to run and succeed in setting-up and managing a business successfully –is Profit (as mentioned above).

Business/ Enterprises can be classified into Manufacturing Enterprises (making a product from scratch – raw materials and production costs), Wholesale Businesses – buying in bulk from the producers/manufacturers. The Retailers then buy the finished goods(Purchase Price) from the Wholesalers and then sells it at a higher price (Selling Price) to the consumers/ public/ people/ households. The Selling Price minus the Purchase Price is the Profit.

Companies make business with Durable Goods (that last long Trucks, Machines etc.) Semi-durable goods (Clothing, Furniture etc. ) Consumables ( goods that are used up – bread, cleaning materials etc.), Investment Goods (Land, Houses, Shares), Luxury Goods (Expensive Cars, Plasma TV's etc), Primary Goods ( Fish, Meat, Corn etc. can eat it immediately), The Businesses that deal with primary goods are Primary Businesses/ Entreprises ( Forestries, Farming, Fish, Mining tec.); Secondary Businesses ( Furniture, Clothing, Jewelry, Chemical Industry, Electronics, Tobacco etc.) Tertiary Businesses ( Media, Education, Health, Accounting, Legal, Waste Removal, Hospitality (Hotels); Entertainment, Consulting (Advisory) etc.)

Good entrepreneurs/ business people are honest, care for customers, have broad knowledge, take calculated risks, are good decision makers, self-motivated, competitive, focused, positive, good people skills, takes initiatives (start things), innovative (can create new things), conscientious, hardworking, committed, keeps promises, can accept constructive (good) criticism, Keeps abreast with the latest discoveries and trends.

Curriculum Related Poem
BUSINESS: Entrepreneurs take some Risks, Well Calculated and often Swift. Initiatives they Take, For Product is what they make. Price-setting, Marketing.Personnel ad Packaging. Management Accounting Makes Profitability Exciting. Unemployment would have Been, If Businesses were Never Seen.


                                                               CALCULATIONS (Q54:49)
                                              (Basic Integration of: Mathematics, Maths Literacy, Physics)
Verily, We have created everything in measure, proportion, number, ratio, degree, inherent strength, power, possibilities, value, scale, amount, sum, number, rank, divine decree, worth, quantity, having enormous scope (QADR).

Allah (SWT) Educates us that He has created everything with QADR (proportion, measure, number, scale, value, quantity, rate, degree, strength, power, possibilities, scope, sum, worth) (QSurah at-Talaq:3). It is thus understandable that the Muslims could  create Algebra (to balance, harmonise, to restore, to normalise, to help back on its feet, to comfort, console, to treat kindly). With this in mind calculations becomes a devotion and a means to appreciate everything and everyone.

Basic maths rules:
1)  a+b = b+a
2)  a x b = b x a
3)  a(x + y + z) = ax + ay + az;
4) a ratio = a fraction = a percentage
5) x is always = to what is on the other side divided by what was next to x
6) Everything can be written as an equation. The unknown can easily be found if the rest of the factors are known
7) word sums / challenges can be transformed in an equation.
8) Some words can be associate with certain mathematical operstions:
a. "sum of; added to, increase by" = + (plus)
b. "difference, reduce by, decrease" = - (minus)
c. "find the product" = x (multiply)
d. "find the coefficient, ratio, proportion, percentage" = / (divide)
e. "square" = multiply with with the same number
f. "square root" = which number multiply with itself will give you the total?
g. "cube root" = which number multiply by itself three time will give the total?
h. "pythagorus rule" = the Square of the slanted side of a right angle triangle (one of the three angles is 90 degrees) is equal to the sum of squared other two sides.

Mathematics, Physics, Accounting, Economics and all subjects require the need to calculate something to arrive at an answer. Calculations are necessary for every part of our lives; Eating, sleeping , drinking walking, sleeping, working, playing, creating, thinking, driving, solaah, healing, etc., needs numbers and relationships to numbers to make sense or to be useful. if there were no measurements and calculations we will not know how much, where or how long things are. Without numbers the world will be meaningless, dangerous, threatened, exploited or simply said - the world will come to an end - because no-one will know the limits and possibility of things. A world without numbers cannot exist - because everything has size, occupies space and has value. A world without numbers and calculations is valueless. We need Maths.

"Area" is when you multiply length and the breadth of a flat surface to find out how much will it cost to cover the space (wall/ floor) : l x b = Area
"Volume" is when you multiply the length, breadth and the height of something - this is done if you want to find out how much can go into a container (capacity) - (pool/ drum, box etc.) : (l)(b)(h)
"Rate" is the measurement or comparison between two sets of measurements e.g. kilometers every(per) hour.
"Proportion" also means fraction of, percentage of, part of a whole
"Ratio" also called fraction/ proportion/ part of. When you are asked to share an amount in a ration 2:3, then add the ratio digits - in the case the total = 5. You now have to share the amount as 2/5 (two fifths) and 3/5 (three Fifths)
Probability (P) is the skill to calculate a percentage chance for something to happen. Example: If you are given different types of sweets in a opaque (non-see-through) bag, what is the chance/probability that you pull out a certain type of sweet. The Formula you use is P = The specific type you want Divided by all the types in the bag. The answer will give you a fraction, which you convert into a percentage. Below 50% means it is less probable that you will get want you want and more than 50% chance means you have a great chance of getting what you are looking for. Probability is used in medicine, construction, science, games etc.
Maths make our life easy and exciting. It allows us to save and helps us plan the future and perfect the present. Allah (SWT) gave us numbers to help us succeed. To succeed one must study and master Maths and apply its principles to create new things to make life easier.

Maths allows us to draw graphs. Graphs is a quick way of seeing a pattern/ flow/ effect of something in the world. If you perhaps what to see how much rain fell for a week - you can measure it everyday in a holder marked from nil at the bottom to 20cm at the top. If you write down each days cm rainfall then you can plot is on a graph to see when was the rainfall a lot or a little etc. There are different types of graphs : Bar Graphs, Histograms, Line Graphs, Scatter graphs, Pictograms, Pie Charts. The numbers you use to create the graph is called Data. With the Data you can also calculate the mean/ average amount (total/number of units), Range(Highest minus the Lowest amount); Median ( The number in the middle of the sequences list of numbers or the average of the two numbers that are in the middle of the list, Mode ( the number/ amount that appears the most in the series of numbers).

When straight lines meet, angles are formed:
Straight Angles - 180 degrees
Right angles - 90 degree
Acute angles - smaller than 90 degrees
Obtuse angles - greater than 90 degrees , but smaller than 180 degrees
Reflex angles - bigger the 180 degrees, bur smaller than 360 degrees
Revolution - a full circle - 360 degrees

Right Angle triangles create relationships between the sides and the angles called Trigonometry where
Sine x = Opposite Side size divide by the size of the Hypotenuse (slanted angle)
Cosine x = Adjacent side divide by the Hypotenuse
Tangent x = opposite divided by the adjacent side

There are also different types of triangles (three sides figures):
Isosceles Triangles - two sides are equal
Scalene Triangle - all sides have different sizes
Equilateral Triangle - all the sides are of equal size.

There are also different kinds of Quadrilaterals (four sided figures)
Parallelogram - opposite sides are equal and parallel
Square - all sides are equal and parallel to each other
Trapesium - only two opposite sides are parallel and not equal in size
Rectangles - all angles are 90 degrees and opposite sides are parallel and equal in size

When asked to complete a table of sequenced numbers with two variable 'x' or 'y' use the following formula: The Difference between the given 'y' values in the table, Multiply with the Given 'x' values, Plus or Minus a Constant (K) = the Given 'y' values. You will find that a Constant value to add or subtract will be revealed/surface. This is your general formula you then apply to solve the unknown ones:
Diff(x) +/- K = y

Curriculum Related Poem
NUMBER SENSE: Everything is in Number, Used by Everyone, Even the Plumber. Multiply, Divide, Add and Subtract, Create a Science that is very Exact. Arabic Numerals we all Use, for Qur'an and Science are Holistically Fused. Shape, Volume, Depth and Height, Bring Capacity into Sight. Algebra and Logarithms, The Arabs Brought, Allowing Balance, Harmony and Critical Thought.

                                                               CONSTRUCTION (Q16:80/81)
                                                (Basic Integration: Technology, Arts and Culture, Design)
It is Allah SWT(The Exalted), Who made you houses for tranquillity, and he made for you that you can use the skins of animals for tents/ portable shelters, which you find light to travel with and stop to rest; and out of animal wool and soft fibre and hair you can with His Help have rich articles of convenience for a while (short time of your life). It is Allah (SWT) who made for you out of the things He Created those that give you shade: of the hills and mountains, He made them to shelter you from heat and He made for you metal rings (mail/ armour) to protect from violence: This how He has completed His favours on you, that you may be true Muslims (those who bow down to Him only). 

Everything in the world and in the universe has been constructed. Nature and the human being has been constructed by Allah (SWT) and Allah SWT has given mankind the ability to use resources to contract buildings, computers, machines, roads, appliances, artwork, food, cars, etc. Construction includes subjects like technology, art, design, architecture, mechanics etc. i.e.(that is) all sciences that allow us to create new things in the world and in space. Technicians, scientists and engineers need maths to design and construct the various devices that ease life's living.  Scientists found various pure substances/ particle/ elements in and on the Earth. All the known elements are listed in a Periodic Table.  The Periodic table is arranged according to the number of protons in the nucleus (centre) of the atom (smallest part of matter(anything). Scientists and engineers use different substances to create structures;
1. Aluminium - comes from the Bauxite Raw Rock in the Earth - used for transportation/ vehicles, machinery, buildings, furniture, equipment etc.
2. Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) - used for making   glass, detergents, medicines, food additives, photography, cleaning agents
3. Sulphur - used in fertilizers, explosives, rubber, chemicals
4. Titanium - aeroplanes, paint, paper, plastics
5. Tungsten - light bulbs, metal works, drills, enamels, textiles, shields
6. Zinc - protective steel coatings, dyes, in rubber, electroplating, medicine, batteries, roof gutters, cables, money, greases, paints
7. Stone - buildings, floors, walls, art,  steps, bridges, etc - types of stone include - limestone, dolomite, granite, slate (Table Mountain is made from it), marble, sandstone etc.
8. Wood - for furniture, floors, ceilings, roofs etc.
9. Sand - building cement mix, computer micro-chips, glass, glazing, sand-blasting
10. Tin - decorative art, jewelry, mirrors, clasps, coins, buckles, mixed with copper and other metals to make utensils in the kitchen and labs - beakers, cans, plates, soldering, window frames.
There are many different types of engineers that design and make things for us : electrical -, civil -, mechanical-, optical-, software-,  automotive-, chemical-, industrial-, genetic-. biochemical-, petroleum-, nuclear-, Power-, Mining-, Naval-, architectural-, marine-, aeronautical, aerospace-,agricultural-, ceramic-, metallurgical engineers. Engineers apply scientific knowledge into products that will make life easier, safer, faster and more profitable and effective for people.
Materials and resources are stretched, melted, pulled, broken-up, heated, combined, squeezed, crushed, cooled, mixed, pressed, bent, etc to make it usable to create new products. Inventions normally follow new discoveries of materials and new ways of how to use it. Here are some reasons why some materials are used for specific purposes.
1. GRP's (Glass reinforced plastics) are used in boats, cars, airplanes, office furniture, machinery and equipment.
2. Plastics (bulky, flexible) used for many things
3. Glass (strength, stiffness, flexibility, transparent)
4. Carbon-fibres composites (durability, heat resistant, light) - jet engines
5. ceramics - heat resistant - space shuttle
6. metals - tough, hand wear and tear, conducts heat, can be flattened (malleable), can be reformed, can stand pressure
South Africa is very fortunate and its people blessed by Allah (SWT). Our mining has brought gold, silver, copper, titanium, platinum, flour spur, asbestos, coal, vanadium, vermiculite, uranium, granite, antimony, diamonds, zinc, tin, chrome, manganese, cobalt, iron, aluminum, manganese, phosphates.

Many of the materials are used to construct/ create effective arts and crafts and interesting cultures in South Africa. Art materials include: wood, paper, plastic, glass, paints, glues, colors, cardboard, ceramics, metals, foils, feathers, scrap, beads, ink, charcoal, rubber, mirrors, tiles, clay, materials, wax, etc.

Art tools include; pens, crayons, coci's (felt-tip pens), cutters, sponges, rulers, clips, board, stamps, chisels, pencils, computers, stylus, scrapers, tape, etc..

Flat Art has specific principles:
1. Line ( smooth, jagged, direct, dotted, bold, faint, insecure, broken)
2. Texture ( rough, smooth, reflective, furry)
3. Mood ( happy, sad, sincere, angry, relaxed, pensive, reflective, tense, formal)
4. Tone (soft, light, dark, loud, low, high, childish, cheerful, youthful, old, weak, strong, despair, sarcasm, despair, deep)
Drama as Art has the following principles:
1. Pulse (movement, beat)
2. Rhythm ( divisions)
3. Tempo (speed)
4. Pitch (height)
5. Timber ( quality)
6. Space
7. Plot, Characters, Build-up, tension, climax, unfolding, script, audience, props, make-up, costumes, purpose (excite, inform, alarm, question, opinion, protest, promote), situation, relationships, dramatic tension, focus, time, language, movement, symbols,
Arts in Islam have the following principles:
1. Balance
2. harmony
3. Reflection
4. Multiplicity in unity and unity in multiplicity
5. blend
6. beauty
7. remembrance of The Divine Attributes.

Design, another form of Art, can be defined as, communication through the arts and techniques. Design Principles include: Rhythm, balance, focus, pattern, direction, movement, proportion, shapes, lettering, emphasis, perspective, angle. Designers create  websites, business cards, invitations, brochures, adverts, billboards, book covers, page design, emblems, logos,

Cultures use art to distinguish themselves. Cultures differ in dress, food, music, dance, songs, festivals, religious events (birth, engagement, marriage, family dynamics) , beliefs, language and ceremonies.

When looking at different arts and cultures you discuss it according to its principles. Examples The line of A is smooth while B is jagged etc.

Curriculum Related Poems
THE PLAN: To Plan cuts Costs, You would have Lost, by being too Carefree. An Overview is all it Needs, To Start a Process with a Speed. Creative Juices start a Spree, With Aim, Tools, Design and Make, Review, eport and Right Mistakes, Expose Ideas from Thought to State. Let's Not Delay, What we can Say, Through Work Well Planned is All Child's Play.
TECHNOLOGY: Discoveries and Inventions, Use Materials in All Dimensions. Plastic, Glass and Metals, Composites, Ceramics and Whiskers. carbon Fibres, Nylon, Bakelite and Teflon. All Combined and some Waste, Cause Environ Dangers in The Haste. Care is Needed with its Use, To Prevent a Human Noose.
THE ARTS: Creative Edge Presents a Mood, Through Colour, Line and Pattern Smooth, Tone, Texture and Design, Make Compositions Clearly Shine. Dimensions, Angles, Pitch and Plot, Send Messages to Audience a Lot. Displays, Ads and Promotions, Bring Response through Nations.

                                                MICRO-AND TELESCOPIC (Q13:2-4)
                                          (Basic Integration: Physics, Biology, Astronomy)
Allah SWT, is He, Who, raised The heavens without pillars, that you cannot see, He is firmly established on His Throne (of Authority/ Power). He has subjected the Sun and Moon to His Laws (to serve you), each one orbiting on course for an appointed term. He regulates all affairs, explaining His Miracle/ Signs in detail (as we research), so that we can believe with certainty that you (all of us can be sure that we) will meet our Lord. And He Spread out the Earth, and set therein mountains standing firm, and rivers flowing from it; and fruits of every kind He has made in pairs; and He draws the night as a veil aver the day. Verily in those are signs for those who consider. And in the earth are different types of neighbouring tracts and gardens of vines, fields sown with corn and palm trees - growing out of single roots and other types; watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat, verily in these things are Signs/ Symbols/ Miracles/ Marvels for those who Understand.

Allah SWT Knows every leaf that falls, every atom of good or bad, what every heart bears and what is in enters and leaves the skies. Everything praises Allah SWT by orbiting. We cannot see the smallest and largest things orbiting, but they do - because there is day and night, seasons and years, distance and curves, heat and speed, waves and light and darkness - all these experiences proves movement on a molecular and cosmic level.

Everything is made up of atoms. All atoms have small, detectable, but not visible, smaller particles -protons, neutrons in the Nucleus and electrons that spin around it, Protons are positively charged while electrons are negatively charged. They attract each other and in this way stay together to be the atom. There are about 118 different known elements in the world and the universe. Each element has an atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus) and an atomic mass/weight (the number of protons plus the neutrons). All the known elements are arranged in The Periodic Table in groups I -Alkali Metals; Group II Alkali Earth Metals, Group VII (7) - Halogens (non-metals) and Group VIII (8) Nobel Gases ( they  never combine with any element because their last orbit id naturally filled.
Here are some symbols and names of some common elements in nature:
H - hydrogen - one proton, one neutron in its nucleus and one electron spinning around its nucleus in its nucleus
C - carbon - has six protons, six neutrons in the nucleus and 6 electrons spinning around its nucleus
Elements can share or donate electrons to other elements to form compounds ( combinations of elements)
O - Oxygen - has 8 protons, 8 neutrons and 8 electrons
Cl - Chlorine - has 17 protons, 17 neutrons and 17 electrons
N - Nitrogen - has 7 protons, 7 neutron and 7 electrons
Na - Sodium - has 11 protons, 11 neutrons and 11 electrons spinning around its nucleus.
Fe - iron - has 26 protons, 26 neutrons, 26 electrons sinning around its nucleus

Now the electrons spin around the nucleus in groups of two and 8 electrons in an energy level (octet rule) so if the element has 11 electrons, like Sodium (Na) then there will 2 electron s in the first orbit/energy level, 8 in the second level (further away from the nucleus) and One in the last orbit or energy level. An Element wants only 8 in its last orbit - it wants to feel full/ satisfied (Octet rule),. The Element will then give off the last electron or attract an extra electron to have its last orbit with 8 electrons in it. Sodium has only one electron in the last orbit , therefore it will want to give it or share it with another atom that needs one in the last orbit to have its 8 electrons like Cl (Chlorine) it has 7 electrons in its last orbit and only needs one electron to fill its last orbit. It will then take one from Sodium and the both are happy - but the moment the do this they have excess negatives and positive charges which makes them stick (attract) to each other - the Result of this combination of two element Sodium and Chlorine is Sodium Chloride - SALT. Below are some other substances we know that are built from combinations of elements.. You will know which elements when you see their element letters in their formulae

1. Ammonia - NH3
2. Dry Ice - CO2
3. Glucose - C6H12O6
4. Salt - NaCl
5. Ozone - O3
6. Octane Petrol - C8H18
7. Rust - Fe2O3
8. Natural Gas - CH4
9. Ice -H2O
10. Wax - C23H48

Photosynthesis is the microscopic process that occurs in the chloroplast cells of the leaves of a plant. The chlorophyll  in the chloroplast absorb energy from the sun. It uses this energy from the sun to split the water molecules it absorbed through its roots into Hydrogen and Oxygen. It also splits the Carbon Dioxide it absorbed through its openings in the leaves (Stomata) into carbon and Oxygen. The energy that is released through all these splitting of molecules - because whenever molecules split up into its component elements, energy is released - this energy is used to build starch ( carbohydrates/ food) for the plant. The plant thus makes its own food. The waste products that are released from the process of photosynthesis is water vapor (water in gas form) and Oxygen which is released into the atmosphere (air). The plant thus gives Oxygen to the air on a constant basis so that we can breath it in. This is the Oxygen, Carbon dioxide and water cycles Allah SWT has Created so that we all can survive.  The plant uses the food it made to live - to breathe (respiration), growth, feed itself, to transpire (give off water), to procreate/ reproduce/ grow new baby plants. The rest of the starch is stored in the leaves, stems and roots. We, who cannot make our own food then get our starch, minerals and vitamins from eating the stored food of the plants in the form of vegetables and fruit. We also eat meat that comes from animals that ate also ate the plants to get its food, because animals also cannot make its own food. What animals can do is to digest the grasses and leaves, which we often cannot eat directly, but need the animals to digest it for us and then store it in their bodies so that we can get it from the meat that comes from them.

Respiration is the process where plants, animals and humans breath in oxygen (plants do this only at night). The Oxygen in our blood stream has the ability to burn (combustion) the food in our body cells to release the energy trapped in it. The energy that comes free from the food we eat allows us to perform all our living tasks - move, walk, run, talk, breathe, excrete (going to the toilet - removing dangerous waste  and poisons from the food we ate). We also need energy to reproduce (to have babies), to feed (nutrition), see, hear, think, learn etc.

In the air are waves. The movement of molecules through the skies. We cannot see them but we can feel them in the heat, sound, vibrations, and colors we see. All colors are actually different waves that travel at different speeds to create the different colours. The rainbow colours are some of the waves that exist in the sunlight we see. But these waves travel so fast that we cannot see the different colours it is made up of. But when drops of water comes in the sun rays way, the drops split the white/ clear light into its different colours. But remember there are more colours in sunlight that we cannot see, but which some animals and insects can see - such as x-rays. Scientists use light and sound waves and allow it to reflect, to identify what elements planets and stars are made up of, because the reflection of the waves that is sent up, send similar waves back if it is the same color. Remember a colour identifies the kind of element something is made up of, because each element has a specific amount of energy it absorbes and reflect. The interesting thing about life is that the color of something is the color the thing does not want that is why it reflects it away from it. The colours it wants is absorbed. From this we know that what we  see is not really what is. We can now understand why Allah SWT Tells us that the world is an illusion, play, amusement and a test for us. the Reality lies in us Praising, Thanking and Serving Allah SWT through doing good to people animals, insects and the environment around us, because everything was given to us as a Gift from Allah SWT - Free to use and work with, so that we can be successful and happy - Inshaa Allah Aameen.

Plants reproduce sexually (male and female cells) and asexually (from a body part). Sexual reproduction in plants come from pollen that falls(carried by wind, animals, humans or insects) on the stigma of the flower. The pollen (male sex cell) land on the stigma  and germinates (breaks open and start growing into the stigma, making for itself a pollen tube with the male cel (gamete) in it . The pollen tube grows down the style of the female sex organ of the flower right into the ovary of the flower where the male cell and female cell (ovule) fuse - this is fertilization - to form the baby plant (fruit). The rest of the flower dies and the fruit swells up and grows to its full size for us to eat. The seeds from the fruit then becomes the new plant seeds to grow more plants of the same kind.
Asexual reproduction occurs when a part of the plant swells then breaks off to start a completely new plant next to it.

Sexual reproduction in humans and animals occur through sexual intercourse where the male cell (sperm) fertilises the female cell (ovum) to start the growth of the baby in the womb / uterus of the mother. The Ovary of the plant is its 'Uterus'. We all grew from our mother's wombs and she gave birth to us pain upon pain. Therefor we must be thankful to Allah SWT and our parents for giving us life and looking after us -  Alghamdu Lililaah - we ask Allah SWT to forgive our parents and grant them the Jannah - Inshaa Allah.

From the above you can see how Merciful and Powerful Allah SWT is to Give us 118 elements in the universe and allow it to combine with each other to form numerous new substances that we can use for our benefit. We have been granted the ability to use nature to our advantage. Sometimes our greed cause us to destroy something we need, but then if we realize our mistake and ask Allah SWT for forgiveness He will be Grant us the knowledge how to save the environment. We must use the earth and the universe (which also has the same known elements in it) for the benefit of all and not be selfish otherwise Allah SWT will cause us to suffer so that we can come back to Him in repentance and begging Him to Help us out of our hardship we created for ourselves - and Allah SWT always Helps His serving believer if the human being asks for pardon/ forgiveness and help - Inshaa Allah.

We herewith ask Allah SWT to forgive us all for the wrongs we have done and give us the strength and wisdom to live well and to accept this and all our work as GOOD Work that He will be Pleased with - Inshaa Allah. Ameen.

Space is the areas outside the limits of the Earth - away from Earth. Out in space we find:
1. The Moon - 384000km away from the Earth. 3500 in diameter. 1/8th the mass of the Earth.1/6th of the Earth's gravity pull. The force of gravity of the Earth keeps the moon in an orbit around it and the sun's gravity pull on all the planets keeps all the planets spinning/ orbiting around it (sun). On the moon you will weigh a sixth of you actual weight on earth. So If you are 60kg on Earth you will only weigh 10kg on the moon. That is why astronauts float when they try to walk on the moon. The same side of the moon shows to the earth all the time.

2. The Sun - the closest star to the earth.150million km away from Earth. Majority of it is Pure hydrogen molecules. The place where hydrogen elements join to form hydrogen molecules, and every time this happens a spurt of power energy is released into space (Sun Flares) which give plants, animals and us the light, warmth, heat and energy needed to live. The light heat and warmth from all the flares takes 8minutes to reach the Earth's surface. The The sunlight we see now is 8 minutes old. The Sun is 5500 degrees Celcius Hot (55 boiling kettles' heat added together). without the sun we all stop existing.

3. Other heavenly bodies/ space entities  include:
Stars, Planets (mercury, venus, mars, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, pluto, Sedna), meteors, pulsars, nova's, asteroids, galaxies, moons, nebulae, ice particle rings, blackholes and many others. Find out more about them on google.

Animal Cells and Plant Cells are the microscopic building blocks of human and plant life. Animal cells have no cellulose cell wall, has an irregular shape, has a small vacuole, has no chloroplast cells and no chlorophyll. Plant Cells have a cellulose cell wall, a large vacuole, chlorophyll in chloroplast cells.

The mineral salts in the soil and elements in the ground and air are needed for:
1. Growth - nitrogen (N); Sulphur (S); Magnesium (Mg); Calcium (Ca) - a lack of it causes kwashiorkor, rickets, delayed blood clotting
2.  Blood Strength - Iron (Fe) - a lack of it the per on suffers anaemia (weakness)
3. Muscle and Nerve strength - Potassium (K); Phosphorus (P) - lack of it causes heart problems
4. Balance and Feeling healthy - Sodium (Na) - lacking of it causes vomiting, nausea, lethargy (tiredness)

Interesting is that Iron (Fe) comes from Space and settled in the ground (in Was sent down by Allah SWT - See Surah Ghadeed (Iron) Q57.
Curriculum Related Poem
THE ORBIT: Centred, The Nucleus, Electrons around, with Energy Levels Absolutely Profound. The Octet Rule for Electron Share, makes New Substances for those Who Dare. Elements so Pure, Molecules a Mix, Give New Materials a Compound Fix. The Atomic Orbits, like Heavenly Bodies - in Total Service from The ONE, Who Loves, the Needy Humans and The Doves. Flight a miracle to Observe, for those who want to Serve, The One Who Gave All, Nerves.

COMMENT on Dr. M.F.Arnold's CURRICULUM POEMS (By Prof. Y. Mohamed:UWC)
The Poems Capture, The Essence of Each Science. They are Suitable, for Young and Noble Minds. The Impression they Make, On Innate Human Nature, Will Ultimately Lead to Knowledge of The Creator.
N.B. All Curriculum Related Poems have an inherent reference to The Miracles (AA-YAAT) in 
The Holy Qur'an.

Al-gham-du lil-laa-hi Rob-bil-'aa-la-meen 
( Praise be to Allah, The Creator & Sustainer of all Universes)

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